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参与那个调查的 Larry Witeman 发表过这篇报告。 (1584 查看)
日期: January 27, 2011 02:02PM

Title: Many Scientists See God's Hand in Evolution
Author(s): Larry Witham
Volume: 17
Issue: 6
Year: 1997
Date: November–December
Page(s): 33
This version might differ slightly from the print publication.
While most US scientists think humans are simply smarter apes, at least 4 in 10 believe a creator "guided" evolution so that Homo sapiens are ruled by a soul or consciousness, a new survey shows. Scientists almost unanimously accept Darwinian evolution over millions of years as the source of human origins. But 40% of biologists, mathematicians, physicians, and astronomers include God in the process.

"I believe God could work through evolution," a South Carolina mathematician wrote in a marginal note on the survey "Bell shaped curves describe how characteristics are distributed.. . so I think that God uses what we perceive to be 'random processes.'" Despite such affirmations, however, 55% of scientists hold a naturalistic and atheistic position on the origins of man, according to the random survey of 1000 persons listed in the 1995 American Men and Women of Science.

"I am surprised to find that so many are theistic evolutionists" Duncan Porter, a Virginia Tech botanist and Darwin scholar, said in an interview. "As an Episcopalian, I don't compartmentalize those things," he said of God and evolution, "I put them together in an overall view." Rick Potts, director of human origins at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, said it is not unusual to find religious beliefs in any community including scientists.

But "I'm happy to see that 55% are taking a naturalistic approach," he said. "Most anthropologists would draw the line heavily toward the naturalistic side. We want to explain our phenomenon without recourse to things we can't observe or measure." The survey, which had a 60% response rate, asked scientists the same Gallup Poll question posed to the public in 1982 and 1991. In the 1991 round, 40 percent of Americans said God "guided" evolution to create humans.

While this 40% is a middle ground of agreement between scientists and the public, there is a sharp polarization between the groups taking purely naturalistic or biblical views. While most scientists are atheistic about human origins, nearly half of Americans adhere to the biblical view that God created humans "pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10 000 years." Forty-six percent of Americans agreed with this view of human origins in the 1991 Gallup poll. Only 5 percent of the scientists agreed.

Because only a quarter to a third of Americans are Protestant evangelicals or fundamentalists, the 1991 Gallup Poll showed that many mainline Protestants, Catholics and Jews believe in a "last 10,000 years human creation." The 1991 poll also showed that college-educated Americans were far more likely to accept evolution, underscoring their closer affinity to the views of scientists.

The standard view in science is that modern-day Homo sapiens emerged 40,000 years ago and began to organize societies 10,000 years ago. The oldest humanlike ape is called Australopithecus, or "southern ape." It was found in Africa and is believed to date back 4 million years. Homo erectus developed 1.8 million years ago. Neanderthals roamed Europe and Asia beginning 100,000 years ago.

The survey was a separate but parallel study to one reported in Nature (1997 Apr 3; 386:435-6) in which 40 percent of the same scientists reported a belief in a God who answers prayers and in immortality. Both surveys were conducted by a reporter for the Washington Times and Edward J Larson, a historian of science at the University of Georgia. The report in Nature was based on a replication of a 1916 survey that scandalized Americans by finding that 45 percent of scientists were atheists and 15 percent were agnostics. Before the 1859 publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, scientists and the Western public agreed that God designed human life. Afterward, they became sharply divided.

The belief that God creates through evolution has been called "theistic evolution" though there are different views on how much God intervenes in the process. A physicist from New Mexico wrote on the survey that God created man "within the last 10,000 years, but the universe is billions of years old." Two biologists from Ohio refined the question about God and evolution. One said, "God created the universe and principles of energy and matter, which then guided subsequent evolution." The other said God did not guide the process "but did create the conditions that allowed the process to take place." "Creation science," most visible in school board debates and court rulings, is only one brand of creationism. It holds that the earth is about as young as human creation. But many Bible believers combine an ancient earth and some evolution with a recent human creation.

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主题 发布者 已发表
方舟子的“科普”是邪教活动(例一)。 (2065 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 10:09AM
“科学没有宗教是跛足的”是什么意思? (2067 查看) idear 01/19/2011 10:09PM
有趣。我曾有篇《无神论本质是‘我是神’》。大陆无神论协会曾把我看作眼中钉而搞大批判。后来他们哑巴了:霍金和教皇握手言欢。 (1915 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 10:19PM
重读爱因斯坦的《科学与宗教》 (1964 查看) idear 01/19/2011 10:01PM
方舟子:爱因斯坦信不信上帝? (1904 查看) idear 01/19/2011 09:53PM
关于 1998 年自然杂志发表的那个调查, 这里有篇文章提出质疑。 (2260 查看) 圆排骨 01/27/2011 12:28PM
参与那个调查的 Larry Witeman 发表过这篇报告。 (1584 查看) 圆排骨 01/27/2011 02:02PM
Very Good Article!eye rolling smiley (1295 查看) 明天会更好 01/27/2011 01:18PM
Fang 叉叉这种僵化,死板的脑筋怎么可能comprehend 这样稍微sophisticated 一点的问题呢?eye rolling smiley (1443 查看) 明天会更好 01/27/2011 01:27PM
我表示一些不同意见 (1335 查看) 夏雨天 01/19/2011 05:18PM
四)看看霍金与天主教皇会面对话,可能对西方科学和宗教两者对“人格化上帝”的态度一致的理解、有所帮助。 (2249 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 08:34PM
补:纽约时报问:Do you believe in God? 霍金回答:I don't believe in a personal God. (1704 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 10:31PM
三)国际社会有统计,爱因思坦是宗教信徒。他对至高无上上帝力量的尊重与霍金一样,而他们都不是基教信徒,即: (2027 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 08:28PM
二)爱因斯坦原文,我看了且给了来源。我的一位老美朋友是爱因斯坦学派代表人物之一、公认的萨根科普事业接班人。 (1601 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 08:25PM
谢讨论。在美国,人格化上帝和科学教都是邪教,但依然可存在,2010年人口统计包括、就是例子。 (1552 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 08:23PM
补充:譬如,基督教堂绝没基于“人格化上帝”的弥撒。一旦那么做,就可能违教犯法双重问题。WACO事件是个例子。那是个 (2219 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 08:46PM
Christians believe in a personal GOD (1299 查看) 夏雨天 01/20/2011 01:14AM
我说了,我信奉基督教,但不是神职人员。不想也没资格对教义做解释。我的说法只是根据美国官方推荐的2010年人口统计。按照该统计, (1674 查看) zhiyan-le 01/20/2011 05:39AM
基督教信仰的是PERSONAL GOD而非PERSONALITY CULT (2014 查看) 夏雨天 01/20/2011 08:12AM
呵呵,太粗心了,发帖居然变成了帮人顶贴了 (1390 查看) 里奥斯基 01/19/2011 10:21AM
谢提示。请考虑使用“先来后到、时间倒序”而不是“跟帖置顶”的版面设计。 (1393 查看) zhiyan-le 01/19/2011 04:04PM

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