欢迎! 登陆 注册

高级搜索

Michigan State University PH.D. Fang Zhouzi plagiarizes Wayne State University Professor Robert Arking (2772 查看)

November 09, 2012 08:32AM
Michigan State University PH.D. Fang Zhouzi plagiarizes Wayne State University Professor Robert Arking



Xin Ge, Ph.D.

(Columbia, South Carolina)



Fang Zhouzi, also known as Shi-Min Fang, received his Ph. D. degree from Michigan State University (MSU) in 1996. He has been promoted by Science magazine and journal Nature since 2001 as a fraud fighter in China[1]. However, the downfall of this fake hero started right after his fame reached the peak in the late summer of 2010, when he was hammered in Beijing. The turning point was triggered by a disclosure of a plagiarism case he committed 15 years ago when he was a graduate student at MSU, against Dr. Robert Root-Bernstein, one of his professors in East Lancing, Michigan[2]. Before October, 2012, 92 such cases have been detected and identified[3], and Fang has been unanimously convicted by five panels organized by China Academic Integrity Review on five cases[4]. The following tells the story about how the latest case, case #93, was discovered recently.

A scifool article: Can You live Longer by Eating Less

In September 14, 2012, Fang Zhouzi published an article, entitled Can You live Longer by Eating Less? on Xinhua Daily Telegraph, a newspaper sponsored by Xinhua News Agency where Fang’s wife Liu Juhua, arguably one of the best-known plagiarists in China, works as a chief reporter.The article introduces calorie restriction studies. Fang’s ignorance in his own specialty, biochemistry, is well known. For example, in an article introducing chemical evolution theory he posted online in 1996, he claimed that if you heat and dry glycerol and fatty acids together, you would obtain phospholipid. He has been nicknamed “Dr. Lard” ever since[5]. Indeed, Fang has written many articles in the last dozen or so years about almost everything, from earthquake prediction to dam construction, from nuclear pollution to traditional Chinese medicine, but he has rarely written anything about biochemistry[6]. So you can imagine how absurd his so called “popular science essays” are, and why he is called a “scifool” writer, which means a person who fools the public in the name of science. In addition to the absurdity, another characteristic of Fang’s popular science writing is that many of his articles were directly translated from English articles, almost always without any attributions. And Can You live Longer by Eating Less is a typical Fang’s scifool article.

The first paragraph of the article uses 6 sentences, exactly 250 Chinese characters, equivalent to about 150 English words, to introduce the famous experiment by Clive Maine McCay and his colleagues[7]. According to my analysis, Fang made at least 10 mistakes in this paragraph. For example, Fang claimed that the object of McCay’s experiment was to demonstrate that longevity is inversely proportional to developmental rate. The fact is, McCay et al. declared explicitly in the paper that “[t]he object of this study was to determine the effect of retarding growth upon the total length of life and to measure the effects of retarded growth upon the ultimate size of the animal's body.” They didn’t measure any developmental parameters. Another example of Fang’s mistakes is that he said that by calorie restriction, McCay extended the average life span of the male rats by about 50%. The fact is, according to McCay’s paper, the average life span of the male rats in the two restriction groups were 820 and 894 days, respectively, and that of the control group was 483 days, so the average extensions were 70% and 85%, respectively. (See Table 2 of that paper).

The most outrageous mistakes made by Fang are in the last sentence of the paragraph: “Among the normally fed rats, the longest life span was 965 days, and among the calorically restricted rats, some lived for more than 1,800 days, equivalent to 200 human years.” Anyone who has read McCay’s paper could tell that the longest life spans of the control rat and calorically restricted rat were 1,189 days and 1,421 days, respectively. There was not a single rat among the 104 rats used in the experiment lived for 965 days. And during McCay’s life span, he had never raised a rat that lived for 1,800 days, to my knowledge. Furthermore, according to Henry H. Donaldson, the very person who established albino rat as a model organism, “a rat three years old ……may be regarded as corresponding to a man ninety years old.”[8] So how could a 1,800 days old rat be equivalent to a 200 years old human being?

A self-destructive statement: “I am plagiarized”

On Sept. 21, 2012, I wrote an open letter to the chief editor of the Xinhua Daily Telegraph, accusing Fang of deceiving readers with false information, and suggesting that his mistakes were made by plagiarizing other, yet to be identified sources[9]. For the last 5 years, Fang rarely response to any of my allegations, accusations, or criticisms, because his initial attempts were backfired. So, he has adopted "the last strategy of all the imposters when their frauds are brought to light": play dumb, remain silent, and pretend nothing has happened──which was summarized by Fang Zhouzi himself[10]. However, Fang’s silence remained only for 4 days this time, because someone else, based on my accusation, found two pieces of evidence showing Fang did committed plagiarism[11]: in an article by a retired professor of Beijing University, published in 2009, there were above-mentioned mistakes of 965 days/1800 days/200 years; also, both Fang and this professor said something like this:

“The diet of the residents of Ryukyu Islands contains adequate nutrition, but the calorie is much lower than the norm in Japan. Their life span is also longer than the norm in Japan, the incidence of centenarians is 2-40 times as many as the number on other Japanese islands.”

The only difference between the two was that the Beijing University professor said the incidence of centenarians in Ryukyu was 2-4 times, instead of 2-40 times, as many as the rest part of Japan.

In Sept. 25, Fang issued a statement claiming that instead he plagiarized that professor, the professor actually plagiarized him, because his article was written ten years ago, and had been published in two books before it appeared on Xinhua Daily Telegraph[12]. The strange thing is, Fang didn’t refute any of my criticisms against his article’s inaccuracy, instead, he falsely identified me as one of those who accused him of plagiarizing the professor. Also, Fang never post the article, Can You live Longer by Eating Less, on any of his blogs, including the New Threads, like he has been doing with his other articles. So, there must be something fishy behind Fang’s action.

The fact is, Fang has repeatedly claimed that the standard of plagiarism for popular science articles is different from that for academic papers, and in the former, there is no need to give citations or attributions[13]. So Fang’s accusation against that professor actually puts himself in a dilemma situation: if his accusation is believable, then the 92 allegations against him must also be believable; if his accusation is false, then his so called “fraud busting” must be fraudulent, at least partially so. Also, this accusation clearly indicates that Fang does know that there is no different standard of plagiarism for popular science essays, since that professor’s article is such an article. It also shows that Fang has been intentionally using double standard to defend himself and attack other people.

A stolen article: Eat less, Live Longer

Following the clue provided in Fang’s statement, I retrieved Fang’s books, Disillusionment of Longevity (Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, 2002) and Science Makes You Healthy (Xinhua Press, Beijing, 2007), read the chapters containing the relevant content, and discovered Fang’s plagiarism case #93. Fang’s 2002 article, containing 3,906 Chinese characters, was entitled Eat less, Live Longer, which had been published at least 5 times in printed media before 2012 (in 3 books, 1 magazine, 1 newspaper), and Can You live Longer by Eating Less is its 6th publication in 10 years.

My next important finding was that both his books contain a table showing the results of McCay’s experiment. The table contains 3 columns: mean life span, median life span, and percent change in median life span. However, in McCay’s 1935 paper, median numbers were never mentioned, let along the “percent change in median life span.” Also, the median numbers in Fang’s table did not match to any of the numbers in McCay’s paper, so it is obvious that Fang’s table must be stolen from other source.


A mysterious table
A table appeared in Fang’s Disillusionment of Longevity (p. 96) (above) and Science Makes You Healthy (p. 38) (below). The two tables are exactly the same, except that the first one indicated the animals used were field mice (田鼠)instead of rats(大鼠). The English translations in the first table are mine, and due to space limitation, some Chinese characters were covered by their English translations. The second table is in its original form.


To trace Fang’s source, I searched the internet with some key words and the numbers in the table, and Dr. Robert Arking’s Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles (the 1st edition) was the only perfect hit.


A snippet view of Robert Arking’s Biology of aging: observations and principles (1991 edition, p.255.) on Google Books



Dr. Robert Arking is a biology professor at Wayne State University, and the Biology of aging: observations and principles has three editions: 1991, 1998, and 2006. I checked out all three editions of this book, compared them with Fang’s Eat less, Live Longer, and confirmed that about two thirds of Fang’s article, more than 2,500 characters, was directly translated from the 2nd edition of Biology of aging, including its table 7.1.


Table 7.1 of Robert Arking’s Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles, 1998 edition (p.314)
The table is a composite from two of McCay’s papers, but the data in the column of “percent change in median life span” (red-boxed) were not present in either of them, so the values in the column must be calculated by Dr. Robert Arking himself. Since Fang’s table contains exactly the same content as that of Dr. Arking’s, it is an ironclad proof of plagiarism.


Detailed comparison is shown in appendix. Here, let’s take a look at how Fang made these mistakes which led to the discovery of this plagiarism case.

Obviously, when Fang said McCay’s experiment extended the average life span of the restricted male rats by about 50%, he was reading Dr. Arking’s Table 7.1, instead of Table 2 in McCay’s paper. Also, Dr. Arking said that McCay’s experiment “grew out of the idea that longevity is inversely proportional to developmental rate,” so Fang thought the object of McCay’s experiment was to test the hypothesis that “longevity is inversely proportional to developmental rate.”

Even Fang’s statement about the incidence of centenarians in Ryukyu was directly translated from Dr. Arking’s following two sentences, but he intentionally or unintentionally translated the Okinawa, an island of Ryukyu Islands, into Ryukyu Islands:

“In the past, the caloric intake of much of the population of Okinawa was much lower than the norm in Japan, but the nutrition of the Okinawans was otherwise adequate. Okinawa has a high incidence of centenarians: 2 to 40 times as many as may be found on any other Japanese island. ” (p.324).

The funny thing is, following the above two sentences, Dr. Arking wrote:

“Other anecdotal evidence suggests that very few, if any, centenarians or other long-lived people have been obese.”

And Fang also wrote, after the above translation:

“Centenarians around the world have rarely been obese.” (世界各地的百岁寿星也极少有肥胖的。)

The fact is, “beyond exact verbal duplication, ……the verbal logic, the development of the argument, and the specific examples” of Fang’s entire article was plagiarized from Dr. R. Arking’s book, just like what he did in 1995 to Dr. Robert Root-Bernstein[14].

More victims

Dr. Robert Arking was not the only prey of Fang Zhouzi’s. The above-mentioned sentence, “Among the normally fed rats, the longest life span was 965 days, and among the calorically restricted rats, some lived for more than 1,800 days, equivalent to 200 human years,” was possibly derived from two articles published in Life Extension Magazine[15]:

“The longest lived calorie restricted rat survived for more than 1,800 days (the equivalent of about 200 years in humans) in the laboratory of Morris H. Ross at the Institute For Cancer Research in Philadelphia.”

“McCay’s oldest control rat died at 965 days, whereas his oldest CR rat lived 1,456 days (150 years in human terms). In the 1960s, CR rats in the laboratory of Morris H. Ross at the Institute For Cancer Research in Philadelphia, survived for more than 1,800 days (180 years in human terms).”


Another example of Fang’s plagiarism is here:

Fang: “多项实验结果都表明,如果让鼠类的食物包含完备的营养物质,但是把食物中的热量减低25-60%,它们在中年后得慢性病的危险减低了,而寿命也延长了大约30%。例如在1986年对小鼠和大鼠同时做的实验表明,卡路里受限制的小鼠平均活47个月,而控制组活28个月;卡路里受限制的大鼠平均活1300天,而控制组平均活720天。”

“One such study with mice and rats by Weindruch (1986) showed that fully fed mice lived on the average 28 months versus the calorie restricted group who lived 47 months. Rat survivals were shown to be approximately 720 days old for those eating ad lib and 1300 days of life if calories were restricted. In these and other studies, calorie restriction is defined as a reduction in calories of 25-60% from ad lib feeding levels while providing an adequate intake of essential vitamins and nutrients.”
[16]

You don’t need to know Chinese to tell whether Fang stole the paragraph by Jean E. Pierog; you only need to know Arabic numbers. The fact is, as a first author, Dr. Richard Weindruch only published one paper in 1986, and not only that paper does not contain any of these numbers, it also does not deal with rats, as the title of the paper indicates: Weindruch R, Walford RL, Fligiel S, Guthrie D. 1986. The retardation of aging in mice by dietary restriction: longevity, cancer, immunity and lifetime energy intake. J Nutr. 116:641-54.

Fang has repeatedly told Chinese audience how an U. S. court would convict a plagiarist[17]:

“U.S. court convicts plagiarism using an ironclad proof: the original author’s technical mistakes, such as citation errors, typos, are made by a plagiarist. So some publishers leave some small errors on purpose in their publications for the evidence to accuse other people’s plagiarism.”

We don’t know whether the mistakes made by Jean E. Pierog were on purpose or not, but we do know that Dr. Fang did commit multiple plagiarism crimes in 2002. In fact, we can see a clear pattern of Fang’s so called popular science writing from this case: writing new articles, such as Can You live Longer by Eating Less, by plagiarizing his old ones, such as Eat less, Live Longer, and the old ones were written by plagiarizing the others, such as Drs. Robert Arking and Robert Root-Bernstein. Is this a general pathway for a thief to age? Only time can tell.

【Note】The Chinese version of this article was posted online and sent directly to the chief editor of Xinhua Daily Telegraph, and to Fang Zhouzi, via email, on Oct. 17, 2012. So far, Fang has not responded to my allegation yet, and he probably never will.


REFERENCES

[1] Xiong Lei. 2001. Biochemist Wages Online War Against Ethical Lapses. Science 293:1039; Jia Hepeng and Hao Xin. 2006. China's Fraud Buster Hit by Libel Judgments; Defenders Rally Round. Science 314:1366-1367; David Cyranoski. 2010. Brawl in Beijing. Nature 467, 511.

[2] Wikipedia. Fang Zhouzi; Xin Ge. A Short History of Fang Zhouzi’s Plagiarism of His Professor Dr. Root-Bernstein; The Academic Misconduct Assessment Panel. The 5th VERDICT.

[3] Yi Ming. Chronicle and Demonstration of Fang Zhouzi’s Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement.

[4] See: Special Collection of Fang Zhouzi’s Plagiarism Cases.

[5] Yi Ming. When an ignorant is hailed as an omniscient: From Dr. Lard to Imathief. (亦明:《当一个无知被捧为全知:从猪油博士到阿莫袭夫》)。

[6] In a commercial ad promoting Fang’s FangZhou Online, there was a line saying “you might be able to discuss issues with Fang Zhouzi in a few areas, but Fang Zhouzi is able to discuss issues with you in almost any areas.” (“你可以和方舟子讨论几类问题,但方舟子却可以和你讨论几乎所有领域的问题。”)

[7] McCay CM, Crowell MF, Maynard LA. 1935. The effect of retarded growth upon the length of life span and upon the ultimate body size. J Nutr.10:63–79.

[8] Donaldson, H. H. The rat: reference tables and data. Memoirs of the Wistar Institute, No. 6. Philadephia, 1915. p. 20.

[9] Yi Ming. Gigantic Cheater Fang Is Still Cheating. (亦明:《方巨骗,还在骗》)。

[10] Fang’s original words are:“装聋作哑其实是一切造假者在事情败露后的最后一招。Google Translate: “Dumb in fact, is the last resort after all counterfeiters things brought to light.”)

[11] Six-fingered: Little Fang is now increasingly good for nothing. (六指:《小方现在越来越没出息了》)。The title of the article by the Beijing University professor was The Gate to Longevity. (《长寿之门》)。

[12] Fang Zhouzi. A statement regarding the plagiarism committed by Professor Tian Qinglai of the Life Science College in Beijing University. (方舟子:《关于北京大学生命科学学院教授田清涞抄袭的说明》)。

[13] For Fang’s exact claims, see: Xin Ge. A few comments on Dr. Zachary Burton’s “Support for Dr. Shi-min Fang”.

[14] Robert Root-Bernstein. An Open Letter to Shi-Min Fang.

[15] Anonymous. Dietary Manipulation of Aging. Life Extension Magazine, June 2001; Saul Kent. Aging Research Becomes A Science. Life Extension Magazine, December 2001.

[16] Jean E. Pierog. RECIPE FOR LONGEVITY.

[17] Fang’s original words: “美国法庭,在认定抄袭时,使用一条铁证:原作有技术性错误的地方(比如引文错误、错别字等),抄袭者也一一跟着犯错。以至有些辞典、目录的出版商,故意留几个无关紧要的、不起眼的小错误,以便用做指控别人抄袭的铁证。


Appendix: Fang Zhouzi’s Eat Less, Live Longer and its plagiarized sources.


About 90% of Fang’s article, which was posted on Fang’s website on Nov. 2, 2002, was directly translated from English articles, a fact he never acknowledged. These alleged plagiarized texts are listed below, followed by their English translations by Google Translate or me, in square brackets【】, and then followed by the alleged sources . In his article, Fang plagiarized at least 5 different English sources, but mainly from the 2nd edition of Dr. R. Arking’s Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles. Sinauer Press, Mass., 1998. The page numbers in parentheses at the end of sentence or paragraph designate the location of the text in that book. The texts from the other sources are noted at the beginning and end of these texts. To facilitate the comparison, the format of Fang’s article was modified when necessary (for example, breaking a paragraph into several), but the sequence and the order of the sentences and paragraphs in the article are not altered.


The full-length text of Fang's Eat Less, Live Longer
Areas highlighted in yellow are allegedly plagiarized


吃得少活得老


•方舟子•



古希腊哲学家亚里斯多德也曾经思考过寿命的问题,他胜过同时代人之处,在于他是一位敏锐的观察者。他根据其观察,猜想动物的寿命长短与其发育期长短有关,发育得越慢,则寿命越长。例如大象是最长寿的哺乳动物之一,而其怀孕期也最长,相反地,家鼠在一年内就能发育成熟、生儿育女,而其寿命则只有数年。【Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle once thought about the longevity of life, he was better than his contemporaries because he was a keen observer. Based on his observation, he conjectured that animal longevity was related with their developmental duration, the slower the development rate, the longer the life span.】

Arking: The experiments of McCay and his colleagues, which we will discuss shortly, grew out of the idea that longevity is inversely proportional to developmental rate. This idea was derived partly from the works of philosophers such as Aristotle ……. (p.313)

1917年,奥斯本(T. B. Osborne)等三位美国生物学家在用大鼠做营养实验时,发现那些没有喂饱的老鼠,生长迟缓,而其寿命似乎也延长了。受到这个结果的启发,1935年,美国康奈尔大学的麦克凯(C. M. McCay)等人直接验证是否动物寿命真的与发育速度成反比。在大鼠断奶后,他们给其中的一组提供完备的营养物质,但是严格限制其饮食,让它们一直处于饥饿中,而另一组老鼠则任其吃饱。受限制的老鼠发育几乎停止,身体也不再长大,一些老鼠夭折了,但是存活下来的老鼠中,寿命明显增长了。雄鼠所受的影响更显著,寿命平均延长了约50%。【In 1917, three American biologists, T. B. Osborne et al., conducted a nutrition experiment with rats, and they found that those underfed grew retarded, and seemed lived longer. Inspired by this result, in 1935, C. M. McCay et al. at Cornell University directly verified whether animal’s life span was really inversely proportional to the development rate. After weaning, one group of rats was fed a nutritionally complete but strictly restricted diet so they were always hungry; the other group was provided with unlimited food. The development of the restricted rats was almost ceased, their bodies grew no more, some of them died, but the surviving rats lived significantly longer. The effect was more significant on the male rats, the average life span was extended by about 50%.】

Arking: This idea was derived partly from the works of philosophers such as Aristotle and partly from the experimental work of Osborne, Mendel, and Ferry (1917), whose data suggested, but did not prove, that underfed rats live longer. McCay, Crowell, and Maynard (1935) demonstrated that rats that were fed a nutritionally complete but calorie-restricted diet from the time of weaning had significantly increases in the values of mean, median, and maximum life span when compared to animals fed a normal diet conducive to rapid growth (Table 7.1). The animals provided with unlimited calories grew and matured normally. In the restricted group, maturation was greatly slowed, although these animals held their weaning weight and suffered from no other nutritional deficiency, since their diet included adequate amounts of protein, vitamins, and minerals. Growth and development in the restricted animals resumed only after they were given additional calories at about 2 years of age. The restricted animals never attained a normal body size or body weight; they remained about 15% smaller than their normal controls. (p.313)

喂食正常的老鼠中,寿命最长的为965天,而限制喂食的老鼠,有的活到了1800多天(相当于人活到200岁)。【Among the rats fed normally, the oldest lived for 965 days; among the restricted rats, some lived for more than 1,800 days, equivalent to about 200 years in humans.】

LE Magazine: The longest lived calorie restricted rat survived for more than 1,800 days (the equivalent of about 200 years in humans) in the laboratory of Morris H. Ross at the Institute For Cancer Research in Philadelphia. (Anonymous. Dietary Manipulation Of Aging. Life Extension Magazine, June 2001.)

LE Magazine: McCay’s oldest control rat died at 965 days, whereas his oldest CR rat lived 1,456 days (150 years in human terms). In the 1960s, CR rats in the laboratory of Morris H. Ross at the Institute For Cancer Research in Philadelphia, survived for more than 1,800 days (180 years in human terms).(Saul Kent. Aging Research Becomes A Science. Life Extension Magazine, December 2001.)

以后许多实验室都做了类似的实验,得到了相当一致的结果。【Since then, many laboratories have conducted similar experiments, and obtained similar results.】

Arking: These observations have since been confirmed and extended by many other investigators. (p.313)

多项实验结果都表明,如果让鼠类的食物包含完备的营养物质,但是把食物中的热量减低25-60%,它们在中年后得慢性病的危险减低了,而寿命也延长了大约30%。例如在1986年对小鼠和大鼠同时做的实验表明,卡路里受限制的小鼠平均活47个月,而控制组活28个月;卡路里受限制的大鼠平均活1300天,而控制组平均活720天。【Many results showed that if rodents were on a diet with complete nutrient, but with 25-60% calories reduction, their risks of chronic diseases after middle age were reduced, and their life extended by about 30%. For example, one experiment conducted in 1986 with mice and rats showed that the calorie restricted mice lived 47 months on average, and the control group lived 28 months; the calories restricted rats lived 1,300 days on average, and the control group lived 720 days. 】

Jean E. Pierog: This finding, that animals on a low calorie, nutrient rich diet far outlived animals allowed to eat as much as they wanted, has been replicated a great number of times. One such study with mice and rats by Weindruch (1986) showed that fully fed mice lived on the average 28 months versus the calorie restricted group who lived 47 months. Rat survivals were shown to be approximately 720 days old for those eating ad lib and 1300 days of life if calories were restricted. In these and other studies, calorie restriction is defined as a reduction in calories of 25-60% from ad lib feeding levels while providing an adequate intake of essential vitamins and nutrients. (Jean E. Pierog. RECIPE FOR LONGEVITY.)

对其他动物,包括脊椎动物和无脊椎动物所做的类似实验,也得到了类似的结果。【Similar experiments on the other species, including both vertebrate and invertebrate, gave similar results.】

Arking: The basic observation has been found to apply to other species, both vertebrate and invertebrate, and is hallmarked by its ease of repeatability. (p.313)

限制饮食热量,是迄今为止我们所知道的唯一能够有效地延长动物生命的环境因素。【caloric restriction is the only environmental factor that we know so far which can significantly extend the life span of animals.】

Arking: In fact, caloric restriction is the only environmental means that has been shown to significantly slow the mortality rate of any mammal. (p.313)

卡路里受限制的老鼠不仅活得长,而且显得更健康。【The calorically restricted rodents not only live longer, but healthier.】

Arking: Are these animals that live longer also healthier, or are they sick and feeble? Is the boon of extended longevity a blessing or a curse? What, in other words, is the effect of caloric restriction on age-related pathologies? Many studies have shown that the dietary history of the rodent has a major effect on the age of onset and the incidence of the various age-related pathologies. (pp.314-315)

麦克凯等人当时已发现这些老鼠得各种癌症的危险性降低了,心血管和肾脏的老化也延缓了。【McCay et al. also discovered that these calorically restricted rodents had reduced risk of a variety of cancers and delayed age-related deterioration of the vascular system and the kidneys.】

Jean E. Pierog: McCay also discovered that calorie restriction inhibited a large variety of cancers and delayed age related deterioration of the vascular system and the kidneys. (Jean E. Pierog. RECIPE FOR LONGEVITY.)

后来的研究者还发现其他的延缓衰老的标志,【Later researchers also discovered that many age-related changes were delayed 】

Arking: A large body of data (reviewed by Masoro 1988a, 1992a; Weindruch and Walford 1988; Finch 1990) shows that caloric restriction, in addition to having an effect on the age-related pathologies, delays or eliminates the onset of many normal age-related physiological changes. (p.316)

如慢性炎症减少、【such as the reduced incidence of chronic tissue inflammations,】

Arking: and the incidence of chronic tissue inflammations (for example, chronic glomerulonephritis, myocardial fibrosis) and of endocrine hyperplasias is significantly reduced. (p.315)

免疫力提高、【enhanced immunity,】

Arking: The early effects of restriction seem to depend on the strain, but a general response to the restriction of calories seems to be a decrease in antibody production coupled with an enhanced cell-mediated immunity. (p.316)

对血糖的耐受性增强、【enhanced tolerance to blood glucose,】

Arking: The ability of calorie-restricted animals to satisfy energy requirements with low levels of blood glucose implies that they can minimize the age-related effects of glycosylation. (p.322)

晚年记忆力提高等。【improved memory at old age, etc. 】

Arking: prevention of the decline in the mouse’s learning ability, (p.316)

这些老鼠对环境致癌物的抵抗力也增强了,用几种不同的致癌物做试验,发现它们因此患癌症的概率显著低于对照组。 【These rodents had stronger resistance against environmental carcinogens. Using several different carcinogens in experiment, it was found that they had significantly lower probability of cancer than the control group.】

Arking: Third, the restricted animals have a greater degree of protection against exogenous carcinogens; these rodents showed significantly fewer tumors after exposure to any of several different carcinogens tested. (p.316)

限制卡路里还显著地减少了体内脂肪细胞的数目,从而防止了晚年肥胖;而如果仅仅限制饮食中的脂肪含量,达不到这个效果。【Calorie restriction also reduced the number of fat cells, thus prevented later years obesity. Restricting only the amount of fat intake did not have this effect.】

Arking: An example of a normal trait that is eliminated in restricted animals is the normal increase in the number of fat cells found in particular fat depots in the rat. Not only does caloric restriction eliminate the increase in fat cells, but it brings about a significant decrease in the fat depot mass as a result of a reduction in the number of fat cells (Masoro 1992). Restricting the amount of fat without restricting the total energy intake did not have this effect. (p.316)

总之,各种研究都表明限制卡路里对动物的衰老过程有根本性的影响,而不只是某些表面效果。
【In summary, various studies have shown that CR affects the aging process fundamentally, not superficially.】

Arking: It seems reasonable to assume that caloric restriction is affecting, either directly or indirectly, some fundamental process(es) involved in the regulation of biological aging. (p.317)

限制卡路里对老鼠健康的负面影响主要是生殖力下降了。这种副作用从自然选择的角度看并不难理解。只有在食物充足、能够保证生下的后代能生存时,才有必要将能量用于生殖。限制卡路里实际上是迫使动物改变了生存策略,将用于生殖的能量改用于生存,从短时间内快速生殖改为降低生殖率并生存更长的时间。【The major negative effect of CR on the health of the rodents was decreased reproductivity. This side-effect is not difficult to understand from the point of view of natural selection. Only when food is abundant, enough to ensure the offspring survival that using energy for reproduction makes sense. CR actually forces the animals to adjusts their survival strategy by relocating the energy from reproduction to survival, from rapid reproduction over a short time period to a reduced rate of reproduction and a longer life span.】

Arking: Clearly, caloric restriction works. But why should mammals come equipped with a mechanism that enables them to live long if they stay hungry? What is the evolutionary sense behind this concept? One proposal suggests that caloric restriction is best viewed as a special application of the disposable-soma theory (see chapter 4), which is based on the premise that an organism can devote its excess calories, beyond the amount needed for basic and essential functions, to reproduction and/or somatic maintenance. In this view, caloric restriction evolved as the set of mechanisms by which an organism adjusts its reproductive strategy to the conditions of its environment by shifting from rapid reproduction over a short time period to a reduced rate of reproduction over a longer life span (Holliday 1989; Richardson and Pahlavani 1994). (p.325)

但是限制卡路里是通过什么生理机制有益健康的?在回答这个问题之前,我们必须先确信我们所见到的延缓衰老现象的确是由于限制卡路里引起的,而不是由于其他因素,例如动物体内脂肪减少、某种食物成分减少引起的。【Through what physiological processes does CR benefit health? Before answering the question, we must make sure that the life span extension we see are indeed caused by CR, not by other factors, for example, the reduced the amount of body fat, or the decreased intake of certain food components.】

Arking: It seems reasonable to assume that caloric restriction is affecting, either directly or indirectly, some fundamental process(es) involved in the regulation of biological aging. But what might these process(es) be? And what specific aspect of dietary manipulation is involved? At a minimum, one could hypothesize that the critical variable is the amount of body fat, or the total amount of food eaten, or the total amount of calories taken, or the decreased intake of specific (toxic?) food components such as fats or carbohydrates or proteins, or perhaps more subtle effects, such as the lack of exercise in well-fed laboratory animals or delayed onset of degenerative disease in the restricted animals. (p.317)

体内脂肪的含量看来并不是重要因素。用遗传工程方法我们可以培养出先天性肥胖的小鼠,它们吃得多,长得快,体内脂肪占的比例高,而其寿命也比其他小鼠短。但是这些先天性肥胖的小鼠在卡路里受限制时,它们也可以获得和卡路里受限制的普通小鼠一样长的寿命,尽管其体内脂肪含量是普通小鼠的3.5倍。【It seems that the amount of body fat is not an important factor. Genetically obese mice can be obtained by genetic engineering method, they eat more, grow fast, have a high percentage of fat in their body, and live a shorter life than other mice. However, when these animals are calorically restricted, they have a life span comparable to that of normal CR mice, even though their body fat was about 3.5 times as much as the normal mice.】

Arking: The amount of body fat is not what is important. The mice in one genetically obese strain eat more, gain weight very rapidly, live a shorter time than other mice, and have a high percentage of fat in their body weight (Table 7.2). Yet when these animals are calorically restricted, they exhibit a median and maximum life span comparable to that of their long-lived, calorically restricted controls, even though they still have about 3.5 times as much body fat as do the controls. The increased longevity appears to be related to food consumption as such in these animals, and not to body composition. (p.317)

延缓衰老的效果看来也不是由于限制了某种营养物引起的。实验表明,仅限制某一种食物成分(蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物、维生素或微量元素)的含量,而不限制卡路里总量,并不能延长动物寿命。这个结果也说明我们寿命的缩短并不是由于我们饮食中的某种物质引起的,但是食物的热量却能影响寿命长短。【It looks that aging delay effect is not caused by the restriction of certain nutrients. Experimental result showed that restriction of only single food component (protein, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals), but without CR, could not extend animals’ life. The result suggests that our life span is not shortened by a certain component in our diet, but calorie intake could affect longevity.】

Arking: Furthermore, the diet restriction does not appear to work if it consists of the elimination of any single deleterious component of the diet. The individual restriction of any single food component (such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, fibers, or minerals) to the same extent as observed in the complete diet restriction regime does not markedly affect longevity (Iwasaki et al. 1988; Masoro et al. 1989). It now appears unlikely that diet restriction experiments extend the life span by reducing the intake of a particular single component of the food. This observation suggests that our life span is not shortened as a result of toxic components in our diet, but it does support the idea that longevity is affected by the daily amount of food (calories) eaten. (p.318)

使限制卡路里发挥作用的具体机制还不清楚。一种可能是老鼠的新陈代谢率降低了,也即食物在体内较慢地转化成了能量。【The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of caloric restriction are not clear. One possibility is by decreasing the rodent’s metabolic rate, i. e. food transforms to energy slowly in the body. 】

Arking: The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of caloric restriction are not clear. ……As Masoro (1988a) has pointed out, recent studies have eliminated two hypotheses regarding the mechanism of action of dietary restriction and forced the reconsideration of a third.……The third hypothesis was the idea that dietary restriction increases life span by decreasing the metabolic rate. (p.321)

研究表明,限制卡路里对单位体重的代谢率的影响并不大,不过既然它们吃下的食物较少,即使单位代谢率不变,总的能量输出还是减少了。进一步的研究表明限制卡路里改变了动物的代谢模式。这些改变包括体温降低、脂肪合成降低而葡萄糖合成增加、在进食前有较低的代谢率而进食后有较高的代谢率等等。这些改变可能减少了代谢过程中产生的有害副产物的产量。【Study showed that CR did not significantly affect the metabolic rate of per unit body weight. However, since the intake was reduced, the total energy output was reduced also. Further research showed calorie restriction changed the animal's metabolic mode. The changes included a lowering of body temperature, a reduced fat synthesis and increased glucose synthesis, a lower than normal metabolic rate before feeding but a higher-than-normal metabolic rate after feeding. These changes could reduce the production of harmful metabolic by-products.】

Arking: Recent information suggests that this third hypothesis is too simple to be entirely correct, but it is also not entirely wrong. Dietary restriction does affect metabolism, but not in the simple manner envisioned by this theory. Data from the National Institute on Aging–National Center for Toxicological Research (NIA–NCTR) joint biomarker study have shown that caloric restriction induces a major metabolic reorganization in animals (Duffy et al. 1989; Feuers et al. 1991, 1995). This reorganization includes a lowering of core body temperature, a shift away from fat synthesis and toward glucose synthesis, a change in motor activity such that it is concentrated about the feeding time, and an alteration in the body’s metabolic rate such that restricted animals have a lower than normal metabolic rate before feeding but a higher-than-normal metabolic rate after feeding. One result of such a metabolic shift would be the lowering of the organism’s steady-state production of harmful metabolic by-products that result in oxidative stress and damage (Sohal and Weindruch 1996). (p.321)

这些老鼠体内的胰岛素调控葡萄糖的效率也增高了,因此血糖含量较低,比较不容易得糖尿病。血液中多余的葡萄糖会与体内蛋白质发生自由基氧化反应,生成化学结构发生了变化的糖基化蛋白,使这些蛋白质的正常功能受到影响。蛋白的糖基化可能是衰老过程中最普遍的一种化学变化。卡路里受限制的老鼠由于血糖含量低,相应地发生蛋白糖基化的可能性也降低了。而且,卡路里受限制的动物组织中,“自由基清除剂”过氧歧化酶活性增强了,在其一生中体内自由基含量都保持在较低水平。自由基对生命分子的破坏作用被许多研究者认为是导致衰老的主要因素。【The efficiency of insulin regulation of glucose in the rodents increased, so the blood glucose was lower, and the animals were less likely to have diabetes. The excess glucose in the blood could result in radical oxidation reactions with proteins in vivo, generating glycosylated proteins with modified chemical structures, affecting their normal functions. Protein glycosylation is probably the most common chemical reaction during the aging process. Because the calorie-restricted rodents had lower levels of blood glucose, the possibility of corresponding protein glycosylation was also lower. In addition, in the tissue of the calorie-restricted rodents, the activity of free radical scavenger superoxide dismutase was enhanced, and throughout their life span, they maintained a lower level of free radicals in their body. Many researchers believe that the damage to life molecules by free radicals is the major factor contributing to the degeneration of old age.】

Arking: The ability of calorie-restricted animals to satisfy energy requirements with low levels of blood glucose implies that they can minimize the age-related effects of glycosylation. Maintaining an efficient flow of glucose through glycolysis enables calorie-restricted animals to modulate their NADPH pools better. These latter cofactors are known to play an important role in maintaining some of the enzyme systems responsible for the detoxification of free radicals. Thus the ability to maintain “youthful” regulation of this enzyme may spare the organism the harmful effects of glycosylation and free-radical, or oxidative, damage, two harmful processes that can interact synergistically in contributing to the degeneration characteristic of old age (Kristal and Yu 1992). Caloric restriction has been shown to reduce the age-dependent accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) in both red blood cells and skin collagen (Cefalu et al. 1995). In addition, calorie-restricted animals have, in some but not all tissues, a higher level of superoxide dismutase enzyme activity and a lower level of superoxide and/or hydroxide radicals throughout their life span (Lee and Yu 1990). (p.322)

在分子水平上,限制卡路里还导致了许多其他的变化,包括肝脏组织中的酶活性发生改变,细胞修复DNA的能力增强,DNA与致癌物的结合能力降低等。大脑中神经介质的含量也发生了改变,表明神经内分泌系统也受到影响。【At the molecular level, CR results in many other changes, including changes in liver enzyme activity, enhanced DNA repair activity, decreased binding of DNA to carcinogens, etc. The content of neurotransmitters in the brain was also altered, suggesting the neuroendocrine system was affected.】

Arking: In addition to these changes in energy metabolism, a multitude of other enzyme reactions are affected by diet restriction, including liver enzymes known to be involved in drug metabolism and elimination (Leakey et al. 1989). The complexity of these changes is illustrated by the observation that DNA repair activity increases in diet-restricted rodents (Lipman et al. 1989), while the same treatment simultaneously decreases both normal DNA synthesis and the binding of a chemical carcinogen to DNA in vivo (Chow et al. 1993). The observation that caloric restriction brings about various alterations in brain neurotransmitters suggests neuroendocrine involvement (Kolta et al. 1989). (p.322)

生物学家通常用放着食物的迷宫测试老鼠的学习能力。试验结果表明,限制饮食的中年老鼠和对照组的中年老鼠的学习能力相当,但是限制饮食的老年老鼠却明显胜过对照组的老年老鼠,而保持着中年时期的学习能力。这个研究表明限制卡路里的老鼠虽然发育缓慢,其成年时期的学习能力却没有恶化,反而能将这种能力维持到老年时期。【Biologists usually test the learning abilities of rodents in a standard maze test. The results showed that middle-aged rodents in either diet-restricted group or control group had comparable learning abilities. However, the old diet-restricted rodents were clearly superior to the old controls, maintaining the learning abilities comparable to the middle-aged ones. This study indicates that although the development of the calorie restricted rodents was delayed, their adult learning abilities were not deteriorated, instead, they maintained these abilities well into the aging process.】

Arking: One unexpected beneficial outcome of diet restriction is its effect on learning performance in mice (Ingram et al. 1987). Both middle-aged and old mice were tested for their learning abilities in a standard maze test. The control and diet-restricted middle-aged adults had comparable learning levels, as indicated by their number of errors per trial. However, the old diet-restricted animals, exhibiting scores comparable to the middle-aged mice, were clearly superior to the old controls. This study is very important because it indicates that the delayed growth and maturation characteristic of diet-restricted animals have no deleterious effect on adult learning abilities but instead maintain these abilities well into the aging process. (p.323)

限制卡路里对老鼠的健康和寿命的积极作用已被充分证明了。我们更关心的是:它是不是也适用于灵长类和人类?在八十年代末,美国有两个研究小组开始对罗猴做限制卡路里实验。由于罗猴的寿命大约为40年,要知道它们的寿命是否延长了还为时过早。不过,它们在限制卡路里的条件下,出现了与老鼠类似的生理变化。与对照组相比,受限制的罗猴显得更健康,更精瘦,血糖浓度和胰岛素浓度较低,对胰岛素的敏感度增强。 【The positive effects of caloric restriction on the health and life span of rodents have been fully proved. What we are more interested in are whether it affects primates and human being the same way? At the end of 1980s, there were two groups started the studies on the effects of caloric restriction in rhesus monkeys. Because the life span of rhesus monkeys is about 40 years, so it is too early to know whether their life span has been extended. However, under reduced caloric intake, the monkeys’ physiological changes resembled those of the rodents. Compared with the controls, the restricted rhesus monkeys are healthier, leaner, with decreased blood glucose and insulin levels, and increased insulin sensitivity.】

Arking: Caloric restriction works wonders for rodents, but what about other mammals? How does caloric restriction affect primates in general and human being in particular? At least two ongoing studies are focusing on the effects of caloric restriction in rhesus monkeys─one located at the National Institute of Aging (Ingram et al. 1990), the other at the University of Wisconsin (Kemnitz et al., 1993). In both studies the treatment is a reduction in caloric intake of about 30 percent. At the end of the first 5 years of the studies, this level of caloric restriction appears to be well tolerated by the animals, and the treatment outcomes identified so far resemble those of the rodent studies (Weindruch 1995b). These results include decreases blood glucose and insulin levels, increased insulin sensitivity, and increased HDL (“good cholesterol”) levels. Interestingly, long-term caloric restriction appears not to affect the animals’ energy metabolism, percent lean body mass, or percent body fat (Lane et al. 1995). (p.323)

我们没法对人类也做类似的实验。战争时期的战俘、饥荒地区的难民被迫忍饥挨饿,饮食热量是受限制了,但是他们也往往营养不良,所以不能说明问题。不过,有一些间接证据表明限制卡路里可能对人体也有积极作用。 【We could not do the similar experiment on humans. Prisoners in time of war, refugees in famine areas suffer from caloric restriction, but they suffer from malnutrition too, so such data cannot be used as evidence in this question. However, there is some indirect evidence showing CR has possible positive effect on human bodies.】

Arking: No well-controlled, long-term studies deal with the effects of caloric restriction on humans. The severe malnutrition too often practiced on prisoners and refugees in time of war clearly has devastating short- and long-term effects on the health of these people (Mohs 1994a), but such data cannot be used as evidence one way or the other in this question. There is, however, some anecdotal evidence. (p.324)

琉球群岛的居民的饮食有充足的营养,但热量低于普通日本人,他们的寿命也长于普通日本人,其百岁寿星的数目是日本其他地区的2-40倍。世界各地的百岁寿星也极少有肥胖的。【The diet of the residents of Ryukyu Islands contains adequate nutrition, but the calorie is much lower than the norm in Japan. Their life span is also longer than the norm in Japan, the incidence of centenarians is 2-40 times as many as the number on other Japanese islands. Centenarians around the world have rarely been obese. 】

Arking: In the past, the caloric intake of much of the population of Okinawa was much lower than the norm in Japan, but the nutrition of the Okinawans was otherwise adequate. Okinawa has a high incidence of centenarians: 2 to 40 times as many as may be found on any other Japanese island. Other anecdotal evidence suggests that very few, if any, centenarians or other long-lived people have been obese. (p.324)

在1991-1993年间,四男四女在一个与外界隔绝的生态系统“生物圈2”住了两年。在此期间,他们的饮食营养齐备,但热量大约为一般饮食的90%。他们的体重明显降低了(男的降低18%,女的降低10%),并出现了与卡路里受限制的老鼠类似的生理变化。“生物圈2”的居民中包括研究衰老的分子生物学、加州大学洛杉矶分校的教授洛伊•瓦尔佛德(Roy Walford)。【In 1991-1993, four men and four women maintained themselves inside an isolated ecosystem Biosphere 2. During this period, they had nutritionally adequate diet, but the calorie intake was about 90% of the normal diet. Their body weights were significantly decreased (18% for men, 10% for women), and they had physiological changes similar to those observed in calorically restricted rodents. The residents of Biosphere 2 included the aging researcher, professor at UCLA, Roy Walford. He became a CR advocate and practitioner, claiming he could live to at least 120 years old.】

Roy Walford: Sealed inside Biosphere 2 in September 1991, four women and four men, including two of the authors, maintained themselves and the various systems for 2 yr, ……Major medical problems encountered during the 2 yr included adaptation to a low-calorie (1800-2200 kcal.d-1 per person) but otherwise nutritionally adequate diet, with substantial weight loss (18% for men, 10% for women), and a declining oxygen atmosphere (down to 14.2%). (Walford RL, Bechtel R, MacCallum T, Paglia DE, Weber LJ. "Biospheric medicine" as viewed from the two-year first closure of Biosphere 2. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1996 Jul;67:609-17.)

Arking: Finally, the seven people who voluntarily entered Biosphere 2 for 2 years and reduced their caloric intake while there are reported to have shown physiological changes similar to those observed in calorically restricted rodents (Walford et al. 2002). (p.324)  
主题 发布者 已发表

Michigan State University PH.D. Fang Zhouzi plagiarizes Wayne State University Professor Robert Arking (2772 查看)

亦明 November 09, 2012 08:32AM



对不起,只有注册用户才能发帖。

登陆

2250s.com does not represent or guarantee the truthfulness, accuracy, or reliability of any of communications posted by users.

This forum powered by Phorum.