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Michigan State University PH.D. Fang Zhouzi plagiarizes University of Washington Professor John Amory (2410 查看)

November 09, 2012 08:36AM
Michigan State University PH.D. Fang Zhouzi plagiarizes University of Washington Professor John Amory

Xin Ge, Ph.D.

(Columbia, South Carolina, USA)

On Nov. 2, 2012, Fang Zhouzi, a Ph. D. degree recipient from the department of biochemistry of Michigan State University (MSU) in 1996, and a well-known popular science writer in China, published an article entitled “Washington was also an infertility patient” in Xinhua Daily Telegraph. The article covers knowledge in gynecology, andrology, U. S. history, and Washington’s biography. Although Fang has claimed that he was trained in biomedicine, vast amount of evidence shows that he has very limited, if any, medical knowledge. For example, in a 2008 post, he claimed that blood oxygen saturation in pulmonary vein in a living person was less than 75%, obviously not knowing that the blood in pulmonary vein is not venous blood. So, how could an ignorant like this, without any training in any of these areas, write an article about Washington’s infertility? The answer is by plagiarizing. Then who was the victim this time? Answer: the victim was Dr. John K. Amory, a professor at University of Washington (UW).

In March, 2004, Dr. Amory published a paper, “George Washington’s infertility: Why was the father of our country never a father?” in FERTILITY AND STERILITY (VOL. 81, NO. 3, pp.495-499.) And Fang’s article was almost entirely based on this paper. The fact is, Fang not only plagiarized Dr. Amory’s historical narrative, his gynecological and andrological knowledge, but also his speculations on the effect of Washington’s supposed infertility on the course of American history. In short, “beyond exact verbal duplication, ……the verbal logic, the development of the argument, and the specific examples,” characteristics of bilingual plagiarism as discussed by Dr. Robert Root-Bernstein of MSU, of Fang’s article, were copied from Dr. Amory’s paper.

Admittedly, Fang did mention Dr. Amory in the article, once, but he not only, probably intentionally, mis-pronunced Dr. Amory’s last name, but also mis-identified Dr. Amory’s affiliation. Also, he attributed only Dr. Amory’s speculation, that Washington’s infertility was caused by tuberculosis, to Dr. Amory, nothing else.

I translated Fang’s article in entirety, and the portions containing the plagiarized words, knowledge, logic, argument, examples, supposedly from Dr. Amory, were followed by Dr. Amory’s texts. There are several ways to verify whether my translation is faithful to the original or not. First, you can try Google Translate: it is very good at translating phrases and short sentences, but awful at long sentences or paragraphs; second, you can give my translation to a person who you know is fluent in both Chinese and English, and let him/her to judge; third, you can give my translation to Fang Zhouzi himself, and ask for his opinion.

This is the 94th plagiarism case committed by Fang Zhouzi. For background information about Fang’s plagiarism, please see:

Xin Ge. 2010. China's Science Cop Plagiarized His Professor While a PH.D. Student at MSU.
China Academic Integrity Review. 2010. The 1st Verdict.
China Academic Integrity Review. 2011. The 2nd Verdict.
China Academic Integrity Review. 2011. The 3rd Verdict.
China Academic Integrity Review. 2011. The 4th Verdict.
China Academic Integrity Review. 2011. The 5th Verdict.
Root-Bernstein, R. 2011. An Open Letter to Shi-Min Fang.
Xin Ge. 2011. A few comments on Dr. Zachary Burton’s “Support for Dr. Shi-min Fang”.
Xin Ge. 2012. MSU PHD plagiarizes WSU Professor.

Appendix: Complete comparison of Fang Zhouzi’s Washington was also an infertility patient with Dr. Amory’s George Washington’s infertility.

Fang’s article is translated in its entirety. The portions which are allegedly written by plagiarizing are followed by their source texts. The following image is presented here to give you an idea how Fang’s article was written.

Fang’s article in its newspaper format
The black boxes indicate the portions in Fang’s article resemble the words, logic, argument, or examples in Dr. Amory’s paper; the red box is where Fang mentions Dr. Amory. Please see the following comparison for detail.
The PDF file of the newspaper page can be found here.

Washington was also an infertility patient

Fang Zhouzi

Fang: 近日适逢美国总统选举,关于美国的话题在网上也热了起来。其中有一条传闻称: “大家知道华盛顿的外号吗?——波托马克河上的种马。华盛顿理政之余,与200余位妇女有染,留下私生子一大堆……”虽然伟人被发现私德有亏在现在已不算什么新闻,甚至在很多人看来还很正常,“伟人也是人”嘛,但是“留下私生子一大堆”还是颇令人震惊的。虽然据说这是一个著名的历史课教师说的,但仍然让人起疑:这是事实还是谣言?【Recently, coincides with the U. S. presidential election, topics on the U. S. are getting hotter on the internet. Among the topics is one like this: “Hi, everyone, do you know Washington’s nickname? “Stallion on the Potomac River.” Washington had affair with more than 200 women while he was in government, and he left a batch of love children.……” Although association of great men with tarnished private morality is no news anymore, some people even think it is normal, “great men are men after all,” but the news of “left with a batch of love children” is still shocking. Although it is said the story was initiated by a famous history teacher, it is still doubtful: is it true, or just a rumor?】

Fang: 随便搜一下华盛顿的简历,即可发现一个简单的事实:华盛顿没有子女,至少是没有婚生子女。当然,没有婚生子女不等于没有私生子。但是一个人有一大堆私生子却没有一个婚生子女,这事总显得奇怪。是因为华盛顿结婚的时候他或他的夫人已过了生育年龄了吗?不是,【Casually searching Washington’s resume, one could find a simple fact: Washington had no children, at least no children from his marriage. Of course, having no children from marriage is not the same as having no children outside of marriage. However, it is bizarre if a person has so many illegitimate children without a legitimate one. Whether that was because he or his wife was too old to have children when Washington got married? No.】

Fang: 华盛顿在1759年1月结婚时还不到27岁,而他的夫人玛莎则只比他大一岁,两人都是正当青年。【Washington was not 27 years old yet when he got married in January, 1759, and his wife was only one year older than him, so both were in their youth.】

Amory: George Washington was born in 1732, ……After the war, Washington returned home and married Martha Dandridge Custis, a 27-year-old widow with two small children.

Fang: 是他们两人感情不和或两地分居、夫妻关系形同虚设吗?也不是。华盛顿夫妇感情甚笃,有流传下来的华盛顿写给玛莎的情书为证。两人在婚后共同生活了16年,直到美国独立战争爆发。【Whether that was because they didn’t love each other, or they were separated so their marital relationship was not existent? No. The couple’s relationship was intimate, which is evidenced by the letters from Washington to Martha. They lived together for 16 years after marriage, until the outbreak of the Independence War.】

Amory: For the next 16 years he was a farmer and local politician in Virginia. ……Regarding George and Martha’s relationship, there is fairly strong evidence that it was an intimate one. Washington’s few surviving letters to Martha show a man with a deep and abiding love and respect for his wife.

Fang: 是华盛顿不想要子女,采取了避孕措施吗?也不是。在华盛顿54岁时写的一则日记中,他委婉地表达了自己很希望能有个子女。【Was it because that Washington didn’t want his own children so he took contraceptive measures? No. In a diary entry he wrote when he was 54 years old, he tactfully expressed his desire to have his own children.】

Amory: Not surprisingly for his time, Washington attributed his and Martha’s infertility to Martha, and by age 54 seemed resigned to never fathering an heir, writing: ……From his writings, it is clear that Washington desired a child an heir.

Fang: 何况在当时,也没有可靠的避孕措施。【Moreover, at the time, there were no reliable contraceptive measures. 】

Fang: 那么就剩下了一种可能性:华盛顿夫妇中至少有一方患有不育症。那么责任在谁呢?在上述日记中,华盛顿指出如果玛莎死在其前头而他续弦的话,并非没有可能他会有自己的子女,这似乎委婉地暗示两人不育的原因在于玛莎。【Then, only one possibility left: either Washington or Martha was infertile. So who was that person? In the above-mentioned diary, Washington pointed out that if Martha dies before him and he re-marries, it won’t be impossible he has his own children, which seems attributing their infertility to Martha.】

Amory: Washington attributed his and Martha’s infertility to Martha, “…if Mrs. Washington should survive me there is a moral certainty of my dying without issue and should I be longest lived the matter, in my opinion, is hardly less certain for while I retain the faculty of reasoning, I shall never marry a girl; and it is not probable that I should have children by a woman of an age suitable to my own should I be disposed to enter in a second marriage. (7)”

Fang: 但是华盛顿并非玛莎的原配。玛莎在17岁时嫁给了科特提斯,科特提斯死后才改嫁华盛顿。玛莎与科特提斯共同生活了8年,生下了4个子女,其中两个活到成年。【However, Washington was not Martha’s first husband. When she was 17, she married Custis, and only after Custis’s death, she married Washington. Martha and Custis lived together for 8 years, and had 4 children, two of them lived to their adulthood.】

Amory: At the time of their marriage, Martha was a widow. She had married Daniel Custis at age 17 and had four children by him in 8 years, two of whom (Patsy and John) survived infancy.

Fang: 有没有可能玛莎在与前夫生完第4个子女后突然患上了不育症呢?有些妇女在生育后会出现不育,例如发生了子宫纤维化、子宫腔粘连综合征。这是由于产后感染或大出血导致的后遗症。但并没有玛莎在最后一次生育时发生产后感染、大出血的记载。【Whether Martha became infertile after she gave birth to the 4th child with her ex-husband? Some women become infertile after giving birth, for example, they have uterine fibrosis or Asherman’s syndrome, which are caused by postpartum infection or hemorrhage. However, no evidence exists showing that Martha’s last pregnancy was complicated by postpartum infection or hemorrhage.】

Amory: These facts make it seem unlikely that George and Martha’s infertility was attributable to Martha: her considerable fecundity is evidenced by the birth of four children in 8 years of marriage to Daniel Custis. Furthermore, no evidence exists that her last pregnancy was complicated by postpartum infection or hemorrhage leading to uterine fibrosis or Asherman’s syndrome, which might have made additional pregnancies impossible.

Fang: 实际上,按当时的医疗条件,如果发生产后感染、大出血,其后果就不仅仅是不育,而是死亡了。【In fact, according to the medical condition at the time, if postpartum infection or hemorrhage occurred, their consequences would not be merely infertility, rather, would be death.】

Fang: 所以就只有这一可能性是最合情合理的:华盛顿是不育症患者。【So the following explanation is the most reasonable: Washington suffered from male infertility.】

Amory: This, in combination with his intimate relationship with a fertile partner, makes it likely that Washington suffered from male infertility.

Fang: 我们现在当然没法对华盛顿进行体检,只能根据历史文献对其病因进行推测。【Of course, we cannot give Washington a physical examination now, we can only speculate the cause based on historical documents.】

Fang: 男性不育症有的是先天的,有的是后天的。先天的因素很难排除,因为它们除了导致不育外,可能就没有别的症状。但是先天因素引起的男性不育比较少见。例如Y染色体丢失一小段能导致不育,但这只占所有男性不育症的7%。【Male infertility may be genetic, or acquired during life time. It is very difficult to exclude the genetic factors, because they show no other symptoms other than infertility. However, genetic male infertility is rare, for example, microdeletions in the Y chromosome can cause male infertility, but it causes only 7% of all male infertility cases.】

Amory: The differential diagnosis for Washington’s infertility includes conditions from each of the six major categories of male infertility (Table 1). …… It is possible that Washington could have had a genetic cause of infertility, such as microdeletions in the Y chromosome, which are thought to cause approximately 7% of all male factor infertility (11).

Fang: 更可能是因为后天患某种疾病导致不育。有很多种疾病都会出现男性不育的后遗症。这些疾病有的常见,有的罕见,有的容易排除,有的很难排除。据圣路易斯的华盛顿大学医学院人类生殖研究中心教授约翰•阿莫里教授的分析,华盛顿很可能是因为年轻时感染肺结核而导致不育症的。【Even more possible cause of male infertility is from some disease infections. There are a variety of diseases which will leave male infertility sequelae. These diseases can be common or rare, some are easy to exclude, some are difficult. According to the analysis of Professor John Amoli[1] of the Research Center for Human Reproduction in the medical school of Washington University in St. Louis[2], Washington became infertile possibly because he was infected with tuberculosis when he was young.】【Notes: [1] Fang intentionally or unintentionally mis-translated Dr. John Amory’s name into 阿莫里, which sounds like “Amoli”. The more conventional translation would be 阿莫瑞. [2] For the reason only known to himself, Fang mysteriously described Dr. Amory as a professor at Washington University in St. Louis, instead of University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, as clearly listed in Dr. Amory’s paper.】

Fang: 并没有明确记载表明华盛顿得过肺结核,但是有一些间接的证据。【There are no records showing Washington had tuberculosis, but there are some circumstantial evidence.】

Fang: 在19岁那年,华盛顿曾陪伴他的哥哥劳伦斯去巴巴多斯岛,当时劳伦斯的肺结核病得很重,希望热带气候能缓解其病情。【When he was 19 years old, Washington accompanied his brother Lawrence to Barbados, when Lawrence was suffering from severe tuberculosis, hoping the tropical climate could alleviate his illness.】

Amory: Washington’s likely exposure to tuberculosis was via his brother Lawrence, who was dying of the disease when George accompanied him to Barbados in 1751 at age 19.

Fang: 从巴巴多斯岛回来后,华盛顿得了“胸膜炎”,几个月才好。【On his return from Barbados, Washington suffered from pleurisy for several months.】

Amory: On his return from Barbados, Washington spent several months combating pleurisy.

Fang: 此后有几年时间华盛顿经常发烧、腹痛、便血,这些都可能是从劳伦斯那里感染了肺结核的症状。【The next several years Washington was troubled with repeated attacks of fever, abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea, which were the possible symptoms of tuberculosis he received from Lawrence.】

Amory: George spent much of the next several years fighting with the English against the French during the French and Indian War. During this period, he was troubled with repeated attacks of bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever (9, pp. 132, 165–70). These recurrent episodes of bloody diarrhea over years are inconsistent with bacterial dysentery (19) or inflammatory bowel disease and given his likely pulmonary infection with tuberculosis probably represented enteric tuberculosis.

Fang: 在病得很重时,华盛顿也怀疑自己得了肺结核。在与玛莎结婚前,华盛顿的这些症状都消失了,似乎一切健康。【When he was very sick, Washington himself suspected that he might have tuberculosis. However, these symptoms disappeared before Washington married Martha, and he looked very healthy.】

Amory: It is interesting to note that Washington himself feared that he might have tuberculosis, the disease he had seen slowly kill his older brother.…… Fortunately, Washington recovered before meeting Martha and was never again troubled with abdominal pain.

Fang: 但是没有经过抗生素治疗的结核性胸膜炎患者中,有三分之二在被感染后5年内其他器官会发生慢性结核病,其中大约20%发生在睾丸、附睾等生殖器官,因此不育。【However, two thirds of individuals with tuberculous pleurisy untreated with antibiotics will develop chronicle tuberculosis in other organs, and 20% of them occur in reproductive organs like testes or epididymitis, and these patients are infertile because of the infection.】

Amory: Upwards of 70% of individuals with untreated pulmonary tuberculosis will develop gastrointestinal tuberculosis from swallowing the highly infectious pulmonary secretions (20). Such individuals are frequently symptomatic, with fever, bloody diarrhea, and abdominal pain (21). ……Infection of the epididymitis or testes is seen in 20% of these individuals and frequently results in infertility (23, 24).

Fang: 但华盛顿患有不育症一事,倒是可以引发一些历史思考。美洲人民打败英军获得独立后,华盛顿的声望如日中天,有条件成为美洲国王。华盛顿手下的将军也向华盛顿劝进,这对很多人来说是个自然而然的选择,毕竟在当时几乎所有的国家都是君主制。但是华盛顿拒绝了,解甲归田。华盛顿的这一举动赢得了所有人的敬仰,5年后他全票当选美国第一任总统。【Washington’s infertility could induce some historic reflections. After American defeated British troops and gained independence, Washington’s reputation was sky-high. He could have installed himself as the king of America. Indeed, his own generals urged him to do so. To many people, this was a natural choice. However, Washington refused, and resigned his commission and returned to his farm. This act won him the respect from everyone, and he was unanimously selected to become the nation’s first president 5 years later.】

Amory: One wonders about the impact of Washington’s infertility on the course of history. Most tempting is to speculate as to whether his lack of an heir impacted on his willingness to return power to the relatively weak Congress at the end of the Revolutionary War. At the war’s conclusion he easily could have contemplated becoming a military dictator or even installing himself as king. Indeed, many on his own general staff urged him to do so (9, p. 403). To his credit, however, Washington resigned his commission and returned to his Virginia farm. This act, wherein the leader of a successful military revolution voluntarily returns power to a civil authority is almost unique in history and is one of the reasons Washington was so revered by his contemporaries and eventually unanimously selected to become the nation’s first president 5 years later in 1788.

Fang:但是华盛顿之所以不愿意当国王,是否与他没有子女可世袭王位有关?【But, whether his unwillingness to be a king had something to do with his infertility, which made him have no heir to the throne?】

Fang: 没有子女的另一个影响是华盛顿像对待儿子一样培养、照顾跟随他的年轻人,特别是到美洲参加革命的法国王室成员拉法耶特侯爵,他成为华盛顿的副官,华盛顿像“朋友和父亲”一样看待他。拉法耶特侯爵回法国后,说服路易十六援助美国革命,亲带六千法军到美洲参战,对美国革命成功起到了举足轻重的作用。【Another effect of Washington’s infertility was that he tended to, like treating his own sons, nurture and take care the promising young men who accompanied him, especially the French royal family member Marquis de Lafayette, who came to America to participate the Revolution. He became an aide-de-camp to Washington, and Washington, in a way like a friend and father, treated him. After returning to France, Marquis de Lafayette successfully convinced King Louis XVI to have France help the revolutionaries, and he himself led six thousand French troops to join America war, which played a pivotal role in the success of the American Revolution.】

Amory: A more likely effect of Washington’s infertility was that he tended to nurture promising young men to whom he was not related. Most prominent of these was his favorite, the Marquis de Lafayette, a distant cousin of Louis XVI. After spending 2 years as an aide-de-camp to Washington, Lafayette returned to France and was instrumental in convincing King Louis to have France enter the war on the side of the revolutionaries (9, p. 398)—an intervention that was ultimately to decide the war in favor of the colonies.

Fang: 有时候,一位伟人身患某种疾病也能正面影响到历史进程,患病对他是悲剧,对国家却是喜剧。【Sometimes, a great man’s illness could impact the process of history. To the man, the illness is tragic; to the country, however, it is comedic.】

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Michigan State University PH.D. Fang Zhouzi plagiarizes University of Washington Professor John Amory (2410 查看)

亦明 November 09, 2012 08:36AM



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