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Part XXXI: Fangangsters (I): Yu Guangyuan, the God Father (7310 查看)

September 25, 2013 08:01PM
【Due to the webpage capacity,only one third of the article is posted here. The full-length article is attached as a PDF file.】

Shamelessness Shouldn’t Be Anyone’s Nature──An Open Letter to Nature (Part XXXI)

Xin Ge, Ph. D.

Columbia, SC, USA


Fangangsters (I): Yu Guangyuan, the God Father

Yu Guangyuan: An Unrepentant Marxist

The Paranormal Fight between Yu Guangyuan and Qian Xuesen

1. The First Round
2. The Second Round
3. The Third Round
4. The Cause of the Animosity
5. The Theoretical Foundation of Yu’s Opposition against PFHB
6. A Life-long Anti-pseudoscience Fighter, or a Pseudo-expert?

Fang Zhouzi and Yu Guangyuan

1. The Pilgrimage
2. Yu’s Bulldog: Biting Qian
3. Yu’s Bulldog: Defending Yu

Yu’s Associates (Yuists) and Fang Zhouzi

1. Gong Yuzhi
2. Guo Zhengyi
3. Ma Huidi
4. Liu Juhua?

According to the standard used by Fang to bust other people, especially his personal enemies, the frauds he has committed are more than enough for himself to be prosecuted thousands of times. In other words, if a person has committed one thousandth or even less of the frauds committed by Fang, Fang would be able to destroy that person completely, and the entire nation, even the entire world, would be cheering for his “achievement,” led by the news media[1]. However, the fraudulent Fang seems infallible: no matter how many times his plagiarism and intellectual property infringement are exposed; no matter how many times his criminal money collecting and laundering activities are reported; and no matter how many times his evil framing and defamation against his enemies are uncovered, it seems that all these negative news about him are sucked into a huge black hole, and you would never hear a tiny bit of response from the authorities[2]. As a matter of fact, not only Fang enjoys the exemption of fraud busting in China, his top followers and supporters, such as Rao Yi[3], Pan Haidong[4], and of course, his wife Liu Juhua[5], also enjoy the privilege. The unavoidable question is: Why is Fang so “powerful” in China?

There are many explanations to this so called “Fang’s Phenomenon.” In this series, I’ll try to answer the question by showing you the key figures behind and around Fang.

Fangangsters (I): Yu Guangyuan, the God Father

In Part XXV of this letter, I said that Fang stole Dr. Robert Root-Bernstein’s paper to write his What Is Science in 1995 suddenly, “out of nowhere,” because Fang showed almost no interest in science, let alone philosophy of science, before that time. So, exactly why did Fang write, or stole, that article? Now, it is clear that the stolen article laid the very foundation of his later “prominent position in Chinese society.”

In December 1994, the Central Committee of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the State Council of China issued a joint document entitled Several Opinions on Strengthening the Work of Science and Technology Popularization, and one of the “opinions” was anti-pseudoscience[6]. In the next year, a vigorous anti-pseudoscience movement swept China’s society. It is almost definite that one of the initiators of the movement was Mr. Yu Guangyuan (see below). Around the same time, Mr. He Zuoxiu (Ho Tso-Hsiu), who would become Fang’s most vocal and strongest backer in a few years, jumped on the bandwagon of anti-pseudoscience. Many circumstantial evidences suggest that Fang’s theft in May 1995 was a deliberate move, the purpose was to gain the recognition from his future bosses, the biggest one being Yu Guangyuan.

So, who is he?

Yu Guangyuan: An Unrepentant Marxist

Mr. Yu Guangyuan was born in 1915 in Shanghai, and graduated from the physics department at Tsinghua University in 1936. His mentor at Tsinghua was the prominent physicist Zhou Peiyuan, who would become one of the top scientists in red China. In 1936, Mr. Zhou went to Princeton to study general relativity theory with Albert Einstein, and according to Yu, Zhou took his graduation thesis with him and showed it to Einstein, who made some suggestions, and when Zhou returned back to China, he asked Yu to modify the thesis based on Einstein’s suggestions, and publish it. However, the outbreak of Anti-Japanese War prevented the realization of the plan, and Yu would never come back to physics again[7].

Yu got his first “revolutionary consciousness” in 1935, and joined CCP in 1937, and in 1939, he went to Yan’an, the capital of the Soviet China at the time. In 1940, Mr. Yu organized the Natural Science Research Society in Yan’an, and apparently for that reason, he got to know Chairman Mao personally[8].

In 1948, right before the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, Mr. Yu became an integral part of the Propaganda Department of CCP Central Committee, in charge of the theoretical education, and since 1954, the science divisions. In 1955, at the age of 40, he was selected as an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the highest honor for a Chinese scholar. Yu was one of the youngest academicians among the 61 members in the Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences[9].

According Gong Yuzhi (1929-2007), one of Yu’s closest friends and formal deputy director of the Propaganda Department during 1990s, as well as himself, Yu was the richest person in the Propaganda Department in 1950s, simply because he had published so many books[10]. So, what was Yu’s specialty? Here are a few books he authored or co-authored before 1955:

Chinese Revolution Readings (《中国革命读本》), co-authored with Wang Huide. People's Publishing House, 1949.

Talking to Young Friends about a few Ideological Questions (《和青年朋友们谈几个思想问题》), Youth Press, 1951.

Common Knowledge in Politics (《政治常识读本》), co-authored with Wang Huide, Liao Mosha, and Pang Jiyun. Learning Magazine Press, 1952.

The Basic Knowledge in Social Sciences (《社会科学基本知识讲座》), co-authored with Hu Sheng and Wang Huide. Learning Magazine Press, 1952.

The best sellers of Yu’s revolution popularization books
According to Yu, his most popular books were Chinese Revolution Readings (left), Common Knowledge in Politics (middle), and The Basic Knowledge in Social Sciences, published in late 1940s and early 1950s. The first book was printed in millions[11].

However, Yu’s career as a CCP official was not as successful as expected: his highest rank in Chinese government was a deputy director of the State Science and Technology Commission, a position he held briefly before Cultural Revolution (1964), and shortly after that (1977-1982). Another important office Yu had occupied was the vice presidency of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (1977-1982). Both positions are so called “vice-ministerial,” a somewhat commonplace rank in China’s bureaucracy right now – currently, there are literally thousands of such officials in China[12], but at his time, the rank was rarely high. In1982, Yu was elected to CCP’s Central Advisory Committee, a quasi-retirement house for high rank officials. At the age of 67, Yu was one of the youngest members in that committee[13].

Yu Guangyuan and his family
Upper panel: Yu’s parents (left); Yu in the 5th grade (middle); and Yu in middle school.
Lower Panel: Yu in 1946 (left); in 1980 (middle); and in 2006.
(The pictures are from Yu Guangyuan’s My Chronicle Stories.)

Considering his relatively mediocre rank as an official, Yu’s influence in ideology and impact on politic in China were much bigger and more far-reaching. He was one of the top advisors to Deng Xiaoping in the second half of 1970s, serving as a key member in the Political Research Office of the State Council, which had a huge impact on China’s reform in the post-Mao era[14]. Before his semi-retirement in 1982, Yu was a member of the “Central Ideology Leadership Team.”[15] He was the first director of the famous Institute of Marxism–Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, which, together with other cultural groups, such as Towards the Future, played the key role in the economic, and even political, reforms in China in 1980s[16].

Yu was one of the most famous economists in China, and he has been considered a famous Marxism philosopher as well. However, Yu’s real specialty was in natural dialectics. According to himself, he started learning natural dialectics in 1936, and began translating Engels’ Dialectics of Nature in 1939, which was published in 1954 after combining with two other peoples’ translations[17]. Of course, the translation laid the foundation of Yu’s prominent position in Chinese communities of philosophy and history of science. In 1956, Yu founded the Bulletin of Natural Dialectics (《自然辩证法研究通讯》), which, after a break in Cultural Revolution, changed to Journal of Dialectics of Nature (《自然辩证法通讯》) in 1978, and in the same year, Yu founded “The Chinese Society for Dialectics of Nature” (自然辩证法研究会), which, in 1985, founded the journal Studies in Dialectics of Nature (《自然辩证法研究》), a sister publication of the Journal of Dialectics of Nature. Yu had a tight control of both publications. The natural dialectics became the foundation of China’s anti-pseudoscience movement started in late 1970s, and Yu and his old subordinates in the Propaganda Department, such as He Zuoxiu and Gong Yuzhi, became the central force in the movement which led to the crackdown of Falun Gong in 1999, and the emergence of Fang Zhouzi in China’s social stage at the same time.

The important roles Yu has played in China’s history are acknowledged in academic circle. Gong Yuzhi said, since his speech on CCP’s 8th National Congress, held in 1956, “Yu Guangyuan has become the generally acknowledged representative figure for linking the Party and science community.”[18] According to Dr. H. Lyman Miller, “Yu Guangyuan was the key figure in Party supervision of both the natural and social science work of the Academy before the Cultural Revolution.”[19] Dr. Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner was absolutely correct when she wrote (Yu) “was regarded as the founding father and patron of the natural dialectics community in China.”[20] To some extent and in some sense, Yu is the God Father of Red China’s intellectuals, especially in the areas where science and philosophy merge[21]. Yu, on the other hand, calls himself, proudly, “an unrepentant Marxist.”[22]

The Paranormal Fight between Yu Guangyuan and Qian Xuesen

Starting from 1978, qigong, an exercise practice based on the combination of TCM, martial arts, and Chinese philosophy, became popular among Chinese people[23]. In March 1979, a teenage boy named Tang Yu in Sichuan Province was reported to have the ability of reading with his ears[24]. Soon, more children with similar abilities were discovered. The special functions of human body were quickly combined with qigong, because some qigong practitioners had claimed that they had the ability to cure other people’s diseases, such as cancer, with the energy they emitted, called “external qi,” and these special functions were termed collectively “paranormal functions of human body” (PFHB, 人体特异功能)[25].

1. The First Round

It is most likely that Yu Guangyuan was behind the first wave of attacks on the PFHB. In April 1979, about one month after the initial report of Tang Yu, CAS and the State Science and Technology Commission (SSTC), of which Yu was a deputy director, issued two briefings, claiming that the stories about reading with ears were fake, which led to in April the critical comment by Mr. Hu Yaobang[26], the head of the Propaganda Department at the time, and in May the publication of two critical articles in the authoritative People’s Daily[27]. On May 16, Yu’s Chinese Society for Dialectics of Nature held a symposium to denounce the phenomenon as anti-scientific[28]. In the months after the attacks, the PFHB seemed over: not only Sichuan Daily, which published Tang Yu’s story, but also the Propaganda Department of CCP’s Sichuan Committee, which was in charge of the newspaper, as well as Sichuan’s CCP chief Yang Chao, admitted wrong doings[29].

As mentioned above, the PFHB phenomena were intertwined with qigong, on which Chinese medical workers and scientists had begun their investigation since 1950s. In the inaugural issue of the Chinese Journal of Nature, published in May 1978 in Shanghai, there was a paper by Ms. Gu Hansen (顾涵森) of Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (now Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics) of CAS, in which the material basis of external qi emitted by qigong Master Lin Housheng was studied[30]. In the next year, the journal published 3 more research papers on qigong by Ms. Gu, and more by others[31]. According to one of the participants in the research, their results were praised by Qian Sanqiang (1913-1992), a prominent nuclear physicist in China, and in July 1979, the research results and qigong performance were presented to the leaders of the State Council and National People’s Congress[32]. Dr. Qian Xuesen (Hsue-Shen Tsien, 1911-2009), arguably the most famous scientist in China for his leadership in the development of China’s nuclear weapon and aerospace programs, showed his support to the study, stating that “qigong is a science for exploring human body’s potentials,” “a key to open the door of human body life sciences.”[33] On November 8, 1979, Mr. Hu Yaobang made another comment:

“Such things could be done by the scientists as they want, but should not be propagandized publicly. Propagandizing these things has no benefits to the four modernizations. China is still a backward country, propagandizing these things can only intensify people’s superstition and thought confusion. You must keep the gate guarded.”[34]

Hu’s permission for research on PFHB worked, but his ban on propaganda failed miserably, because the leadership in the Propaganda Department was in transition, Hu was promoted to a higher position, and his position in the Department was taken over by Mr. Wang Renzhong (王任重, 1917-1992), who was friendly to PFHB. So, the PFHB was in fact revived after Hu’s comment.

In February 1980, the Chinese Journal of Nature organized China’s first symposium on PFHB. In April, the prestigious journal Philosophical Researches (《哲学研究》) published Dr. Qian Xuesen’s paper in which Qian expressed his belief in qigong and PFHB[35]. In June 1980, Dr. Qian personally visited Chinese Journal of Nature to show publicly his support for the study of PFHB. Since then, Dr. Qian became one of the strongest supporters for the studies on PFHB, now termed “somatic science”[36]. Yes, Qian almost single-handedly saved the subject.

Paranormal Functions of Human Body
The cover of April 1980 issue of Chinese Journal of Nature, showing the photos of a group of children with the paranormal abilities. The boy in the right lower corner was Tang Yu, the first identified case with the ability of reading with his ears.

However, being influenced by Mr. Lu Bingkui (吕炳奎, 1914-2003), the chief of the TCM Administration in the Ministry of Health, and a famous TCM doctor, Dr. Qian believed that PFHB, qigong, and TCM were closely connected[37], and he put more emphasis on PFHB in his somatic science system, which, although saved the PFHB for the moment, might be the key cause of the collapse of somatic science altogether at the end of the century.

2. The Second Round

With Qian gaining the upper hand, Yu Guangyuan had to jump out from the backstage and engaged in a series of ferocious attacks on the somatic science. What he focused on, however, was PFHB, such as reading with body organs other than eyes. In October 1980, the Institute of Philosophy at Chinese Academy of Social Sciences held a 10-day Dialectical Materialism Colloquium, in which Yu accused that the somatic science studies had departed from Marxism[38]. In July 1981, Yu criticized the somatic science research again, and he based his criticism completely on Engels’ Natural Science and the Spirit World in the Dialectics of Nature, therefore, they were not only anti-Marxism, but also anti-science[39]. In October, under Yu’s suggestion, SSTC established a contact group for investigating and studying the PFHB, and one of the missions was to compile “The Data of PFHB Investigation and Study.” According to the compiler, Mr. Deng Weizhi (邓伟志), he was the only person under Yu’s leadership involved in the project, and his office was in Yu’s home, and his food and shelter were also provided by Yu, personally[40]. In November, Yu delivered a speech at the Inaugural Congress of the Chinese Society for Dialectics of Nature, entitled Want Psychic Science or Natural Dialectics?[41] The severe situation was well described by the editors of the Chinese Journal of Nature, the somatic science stronghold:

“After we returned to Shanghai, the pressure indeed came in September [1981], and the pressure was indeed really big. It came from a person in charge of science in the State Council, an ‘authority’ being called sociologist, economist, natural dialectician, in charge of natural sciences, and self-proclaimed Marxist. From August, this ‘authority’ spoke everywhere, gave talks to everyone, wrote articles and publish book to harshly criticize the people who conduct research on somatic science. The crimes he accused of were scaring: ‘anti-Marxism,’ ‘anti-dialectical materialism,’ ‘reviving the feudal superstitions which had been disapproved longtime ago.’”[42]

The turning point of the paranormal fight occurred in February 1982, when People’s Daily reported that both the deputy director of SSTC Yu Guangyuan and the CCP chief at CAS Li Chang (李昌) didn’t believe the “paranormal function.”[43] The report generated fierce reactions among the believers, and Dr. Qian brought out General Zhang Zhenhuan (张震寰, 1915-1994), the director of the Science and Technology Committee of the National Defense Science and Technology Commission, who had played key role in China’s nuclear weapon programs. From that point on, General Zhang became the actual organizer of the somatic research, and in March 1982, he wrote a letter to the editor-in-chief of People’s Daily, asking them to watch the performance of the kids with the paranormal functions. The letter was forwarded to CCP General Secretary Hu Yaobang, who reiterated what he said in 1979. In April, the Propaganda Department issued the so called “Triple-No policy”: no introduction and promotion, no criticism, no debate or discussion[44]. It seemed that Yu prevailed.

However, in May, Dr. Qian Xuesen wrote to one of the deputy directors of the Propaganda Department, guaranteed the genuineness of paranormal functions with his “party character.” The letter was forwarded to General Secretary Hu, and he finally allowed the continuation of the research on the somatic science by a small group of scientists, and the publication of the research results among the people who were interested[45]. The net result: Yu lost, for the moment.

Zhang Zhenhuan and Qian Xuesen in 1982
Even both people belonged to the PLA system, Qian’s wearing military uniform in public had symbolic meaning.

3. The Third Round

By early1990s, China’s political landscape had changed dramatically: two CCP chiefs (Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang) had been removed from their posts; many old CCP leaders, especially those who had supported qigong or somatic science, such as Marshal Ye Jianying (1897-1986) and General Wang Zhen (1908-1993), had died. In March 1994, General Zhang Zhenhuan passed away, and the somatic science research lost their strongest supporter. The joint announcement made by CCP Central Committee and the State Council in December that year, Several Opinions on Strengthening the Work of Science and Technology Popularization[6], mentioned before, basically became the first nail in the coffin. Many opportunists, such as He Zuoxiu, and of course, Fang Zhouzi, who smelled blood, jumped on the bandwagon of anti-pseudoscience. In June 1995, He Zuoxiu and Guo Zhengyi, two of Yu’s closest followers, published an article in Beijing Daily, entitled It’s High Time to Expose The Pseudo-qigong and Paranormal Functions of Human Body, linking PFHB to the Aum Shinrikyo cult in Japan[46]. In 1996, Yu published his second book on PFHB, entitled Anti-Paranormal Functions of Human Body, miming Engels’ Anti-Dühring. In the introduction, Yu wrote:

“In recent years, the evil acts of Japan’s Aum Shinrikyo have been exposed. The activities of this evil cult have many similarities to the pseudoscientific activities of PFHB in our country, which is self-evident. The incident occurred outside sounded the alarm for our country. In addition, the activities engaged in PFHB had been too unbridled, to the extent that was intolerable, which led to the exposure and criticism against the pseudoscientific activities by science and technology community and news media in the capital.”[47]

It is obvious that Yu and his gangsters have been trying to destroy Qian’s somatic science by labeling it with an “evil cult” tag since 1995. However, their first such attempt failed, because of the intervention by the top leaders after General Wu Shaozu (伍绍祖, 1939-2012), then Minister of State Physical Culture and Sports Commission, and the leader of the Six-Person Leadership Group over somatic science, reported the situation to them[48]. On October 5, 1995, the Propaganda Department formally issued an order, putting the brakes on the raving movement, which led to a protest letter to Mr. Jiang Zemin and Li Peng, China’s top leaders at the time, signed by 27 academicians and CPPCC members, including He Zuoxiu and Guo Zhengyi[49].

It took another 4 years before Yu finally had the upper hand over Qian, taking advantage of the governmental crackdown of Falun Gong in 1999, in which He Zuoxiu and Fang Zhouzi played critical roles. The official crackdown of Falun Gong occurred on July 22, 1999. On August 6, the influential Southern Weekend published an interview with Yu Guangyuan, in which Yu linked the origination of Falun Gong to the PFHB, and declared that not only is PFHB pseudoscience, but also intentional cheating. In the interview, Yu alluded to Qian Xuesen three times[50]. In 2000, the publications of the Chinese Journal of Somatic Science (《中国人体科学》) and China Qigong Science (《中国气功科学》), the two top journals in the area, were stopped. In 2006, Yu suffered a stroke and was partially paralyzed. However, Dr. Qian died in 2009 at the age of 98, and Yu, who was born in 1915, is still outliving Qian. Yu Guangyuan has the last laugh.

4. The Cause of the Animosity

The questions are: why was Yu Guangyuan, who was well-known for his leniency and tolerance to different political or cultural opinions[51], so intolerant to PFHB and Qian Xuesen? And what does the above paranormal struggle have to do with Fang Zhouzi’s later career?

To some extent, the fight between Yu and Qian was mainly ideological. In November 1979, Yu published in the Philosophical Researches an old article he wrote in 1953, The Reaction of Consciousness against Matter. According to Yu, the article was not to discuss the undisputable materialist principles such as “matter is primary, consciousness is secondary,” “matter is the source of consciousness, consciousness is the reflection of matter,” “consciousness is not independent entity; it is the product of highly developed matter.” Rather, he was going to illustrate, based on these principles, that ① What processes does consciousness go through to react to matter; ② What conditions are needed for consciousness to react to matter; and ③ The limitations of consciousness’ reaction to matter[52]. Obviously, what Yu wanted to say in 1979 was that the PFHB phenomenon is against the dialectical materialist principle. And considering the time needed to publish a paper in a prestigious journal like the Philosophical Researches at the time, normally more than a year, but Yu might receive special treatment, then it is likely that Yu submitted the paper for publication not long after the outbreak of Tang Yu’s story in March 1979.

The funny thing is, in 1958, the beginning of the Great Leap Forward campaign, Yu published another paper, The Active Roles People Play in Changing the Nature, stressing that people (their consciousness) in socialist countries play more active roles in changing the nature than those in capitalist countries, because, among other things, those working people in socialist counties are the masters of the society, so their motivation and creativity could exerted fully, resulting in inexhaustible power[53]. It seems that, according to Yu’s dialectics, the power of consciousness can go either way, depending exclusively on his own consciousness.

In April 1980, Qian Xuesen published his Natural Dialectics, Cognitive Science, and Human Potentials in the Philosophical Researches. In the paper, Qian not only showed his affirmation of qigong and PFHB, as mentioned above, he also criticized “some people’s” attempt to include so many subjects, such as Cybernetics, Systems Engineering, and Science of Science, into Natural Dialectics, which, according to Qian, not only went far beyond Engels’ original intention, but also impossible[54].

Of course, Qian was the founder of these subjects in China, and in his system of science and technology, these subjects, as well as Natural Dialectics, have their corresponding positions and relatively narrow domains[55]. And those “some people” Qian criticized were no one else but Yu and his fellow comrades in the Chinese Society for Dialectics of Nature. For example, in July 1979, Yu gave a talk in the first National Conference on Science of Science, in which he said: “To develop the subject of Science of Science in our country, it is necessary to study and master the numerous Marxist discourses on science.”[56]. In January 1980, Yu published a paper entitled Natural Dialectics is a Science Group, claiming that Science of Science, Futurology, Religious Studies, and History of Science and Technology all could be the research subjects for Natural Dialectics[57]. As a matter of fact, before 1980, the Journal of Dialectics of Nature published 18 papers related to cybernetics, and since1981, the journal has been stating on its cover that it is “A comprehensive, theoretical journal of the philosophy, history and sociology of natural science.”

In transition
The cover page of Journal of Dialectics of Nature changed in 1981 by adding English title and the scope description in both Chinese and English. The covers before 1981 had only Chinese title and issue identification.

What might upset Yu further was that in the paper, Qian also criticized Yu’s history:

“On one hand, after Marx, Engels, and Lenin, some self-proclaimed Marxist philosophers not only didn’t use the new results in science and technology to enrich and deepen Marxist philosophy; instead, they usually wrongfully criticize these new theories as anti-Marxism. For example, Morgan genetics and the discovery of genes, the resonance theory of chemical bond, cybernetics, artificial intelligence, using computer to do some portions of human’s mental work, etc., all of them were criticized, more or less. It has been demonstrated by facts that all these criticisms were wrong, and they must be retracted.”[58]

Because of his position in the Propaganda Department, Yu was responsible for all of these criticisms against the new scientific theories, which occurred mainly in 1950s. It is imaginable how embarrassed Yu was when Qian dug them up and used them to suggest that he might be wrong again on the matter of PFHB. As a matter of fact, in his letter to the deputy director of the Propaganda Department on May 5, 1981, Qian reiterated above criticism[59].

Another thing that scared Yu the most happened in May 1981, when People's Publishing House published The Principles of Dialectical Materialism, a textbook written by Marxist philosophers selected by China’s Ministry of Education. In the book, there were the following words:

“The manifestation of conscious activity mentioned above is only what we know at the present. The potential of conscious activity is far from exhausted. The discovery of paranormal functions of human body is a new sign which has attracted more and more attentions from science and philosophy communities. With the development of practice and science, the potential of conscious activity will be more and more fully demonstrated.”[60]

Since 1948, Yu has been in charge of the Divisions of Theory Education and Natural Sciences in the Propaganda Department, and the above passage was more than a slap in his face, because, according to Yu himself, just 7 months earlier, he had given a two-hour talk in a Dialectical Materialism Colloquium, warning the participants against the departure from Marxism on the matter of PFHB[61]. See how flustered and exasperated Yu was:

“The paranormal functions of human body were even written into the textbook for Marxist Philosophy major, and the textbook was written by the people convened by the Ministry of Education! I don’t think the situation is acceptable. Obviously, if similar contents against dialectical materialism are not deleted, this book cannot be considered as a book popularizing the philosophy of dialectical materialism.”

“The affirmative acknowledgment of PFHB by the Principles of Dialectical Materialism indicates the invasion of idealist parapsychology into the territory of Marxist philosophy in our country; indicates not only some individual Marxist philosophy teachers, but a large proportion of them, have been defeated under the attack of pseudoscience. Now, a sharp question is presented before the authors of the book: they have to make a definite choice between the idealist parapsychology and real dialectical materialism.”[62]

Well, Yu has been indeed a staunch Marxist! Under Yu’s ferocious intervention, the textbook substituted the phrase “paranormal functions of human body” with “qigong” in its later prints[63].

Another direct cause of Yu’s attacks on the somatic science in the summer of 1981 was the Second National PFHB Science Symposium and the Establishment of the Preparatory Committee for China Somatic Science Society, held in May 1981 in Chongqing. The participants came from more than one hundred higher education and research institutions, and 147 papers were presented[64].

5. The Theoretical Foundation of Yu’s Opposition against PFHB

The question is: Why so many of Yu’s comrades of dialectical materialism and Marxism were defeated, repeatedly, by the “idealist parapsychology”? According to Yu, the reason was that they had committed a mistake of empiricism:

“From the epistemological perspective, the reason for these people to believe the existence of such functions was because they have made a mistake of empiricism, which Engels had pointed out in his Natural Science and the Spirit World in the Dialectics of Nature. This empiricism made great scientists on a par with Darwin such as Wallace believed and propagandized the ‘spiritualistic manifestations’ by the mediums (a kind of people with the paranormal functions like described in many newspapers and magazines). Empiricism made them think the illusion they saw was a fact.”[65]

Yes, Yu based his opposition to PFHB on the article Engels wrote in 1878, Natural Science and the Spirit World, in which even Engels himself “was much less concerned in investigating the factual background of charlatanry,” except for asserting that they were charlatanry.

Based upon what Engels thought, or believed, in the 1870s, Yu repeatedly criticized the traditional Chinese creed: Don’t trust what you hear, believe only what you see (耳听为虚,眼见为实). And for that reason, Yu firmly refused the invitation to watch the PFHB performance. There is a widely spread saying that Yu has his own “Triple-No Policy” on PFHB, with several variations, but the core of the policy was “don’t watch.”[66] In 1999, Yu told a journalist the following story:

“On the 50th anniversary of my academic activities, the ‘big scientist’ mentioned before also came to congratulate me, and I thanked him for that. However, he still hoped that I could take a look at the PFHB. I have insisted on not watching, because I had watched magic show fishing in air for at least ten times, and every time, the magician was able to fetch fish in the air.”[67]

Yu the big Marxist philosopher didn’t realize that the above story indicates that he was also a shallow empiricist: based on his experience in the magic shows, he believes that anything paranormal is nothing but a magic, and he can be fooled every time he watches the show. So he adopted the Ostrich policy. The funny thing is, during the Great Leap Forward era, Yu blamed the “bourgeois scientists” for the exactly the opposite: they failed to look at squarely the great achievements made by the workers and peasants (more on this later.)

According to Qian, the 50th anniversary encounter was like this: On Dec. 14, 1986, he went to the 50th Anniversary Celebration of Comrade Yu Guangyuan’s Engagement in Academic Activities. The organizer of the celebration didn’t arrange Qian’s speech, but Qian insisted on saying something. And in his speech, Qian first invited Yu to “take a look” at the PFHB, then he pressed Yu with the question: whether the PFHB phenomenon should be studied? Based on Qian’s recount, Yu accepted the invitation, and gave an affirmative answer to the second question, although unwillingly, but he back away later[68].

Another well circulated story was, in 1981, SSTC set up a contact group for investigating and studying the PFHB. One member of the group was Mr. Xie Qiang (解强), who was working in the Institute of Philosophy at CASS. Yu asked Xie to collect data against the PFHB. However, Mr. Xie found out later that one of his two children had the PFHB. When the information was presented to Yu, Yu refused to test the child in person, but insisting that the phenomenon was faked. Mr. Xie was so upset that he withdrew from the group and joined the PFHB camp and revealed the story to the public[69].

6. A Life-long Anti-pseudoscience Fighter, or a Pseudo-expert?

In a book published in 2002, Yu claimed that he had a 70-year history of anti-pseudoscience:

“When I was 15 years old, I read The Outline of Science by the famous English physicist J. J. Thomson. The first few parts of the book introduced the mathematics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, and biology, and I felt very good. However, when I reached the last chapter, it was ‘Psychic Science.’ As a native of Shanghai, I had seen in person the facts mentioned in the chapter, such as planchette and asking for God, etc. I was both surprised and angry, how could a big scientist write such a book? I realized the existence of pseudoscience ever since. About a dozen years later, in the summer of 1949, I knew by accident that in foreign countries there were cheating activities like extra-sensory perception and psychokinesis, which were the same strain of 19th century’s ‘psychic research.’ I later found out J. J. Thomson was an important member of the Society for Psychical Research in London. Therefore, I got further understanding of pseudoscience.”[70]

Yu has told the story many times: in 1982, Yu mentioned in an article that J. J. Thomson was the author of The Outline of Science, and the last chapter of the book was Psychic Science[71]. In 1996, Yu said his encounter with J. J. Thomson’s pseudoscience was “62 years ago”[72], then “65 years ago”[73], when he was a second year student in a high school. In 1999, Yu presented “Yu Guangyuan’s Anti-pseudoscience Résumé,” in which he wrote:

“Yu Guangyuan, who received scientific spirit education from his childhood, didn’t believe in superstition such as ghosts and gods. When he read at the age of 15 The Outline of Science written by the famous English physicist J. J. Thomson, he found the last chapter was, unexpectedly, ‘Psychic Science,’ which made him surprised and angry. He realized the existence of pseudoscience ever since. In the summer of 1949, he learned that there were extrasensory perception (ESP) and psychokinesis (PK) movements in foreign countries, so he had deeper understanding of pseudoscience.”[74]

The fact is, The Outline of Science was not written by English physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940), rather, it was edited by Scottish naturalist Sir John Arthur Thomson (1861-1933). Also, The Outline of Science contains 38 chapters in 4 volumes, the Psychic Science was the 16th chapter and the first one in the third volume (in the Chinese translation of the book, published in 14 volumes in 1920s by Shanghai-based Commercial Press, that chapter was located at the end of volume 7.)

The title page of the Chinese translation of The Outline of Science
The red box (added by me) highlights the original editor’s name, J. A. Thomson.

Furthermore, the chapter of Psychic Science was written by Sir Oliver Lodge, and the Chinese translator of the chapter, Dr. Lu Zhiwei (C. W. Luh, 陆志韦, 1894-1970), who obtained his Ph. D. in psychology from the University of Chicago in 1920, and a psychology professor at the Southeast University in Nanjing, China, made the following comments in the front of the chapter:

“The readers of this chapter might have the following questions:

“First, the question about scientific method. Sir Lodge is a renowned physicist, whether his method for psychical research was as rigorous as his physical study? Sir Lodge changed his attitude significantly after losing his son, whether his focus on psychic research was influenced by his emotion?

“Second, the question about the facts in the chapter. The stories such as telepathy Sir Lodge told were all based on hearsays. Whether they could withstand the examination of scientific method? Whether they are believed by everyone who conducts psychical research? However, the contents in this chapter are not the same as those in our country which are for the purpose of collecting money.

“Third, the question about psychical research. Among the psychologists who are objective, and their accomplishments in psychological studies are comparable with Lodge’s physical study, how many of them would select the fact without scrutiny like Sir Lodge?”[75]

Furthermore, Mr. Ren Hongjun (Jen Hungchün, 任鸿隽, 1886-1961), one of the founders of the Science Society of China and Chinese Journal of Science, in one of his books, Introduction to Science, published in 1929, clearly stated that psychical research is pseudoscience[76]. It is very likely that Yu, “who received scientific spirit education from his childhood,” got his idea from these Chinese science pioneers, instead of being enlightened on his own. In other words, Mr. Yu’s self-proclaimed foresight of the pseudoscience at a young age is more likely to be belated wisdom.

The fact is, Mr. Yu not only has very limited knowledge in science, his knowledge in philosophy of science is also very limited. In 1990, Yu published a paper entitled On Science and Pseudoscience, which was republished in many books later[77]. Yu apparently was trying to fix somatic science as a pseudoscience theoretically, or philosophically, so he first defined science as “systematized (real) knowledge,” and then described pseudoscience as “fake knowledge.”[78] It seems that Yu, as one of the most famous philosophers in the contemporary China, didn’t realize that what he had done in his lengthy paper was nothing but synonym exchanges. Also, it appeared that Yu was completely unaware of the extensive discussion of the demarcation problem in the philosophy of science circle in the past century in the Western world, because he didn’t cite a single reference, except for saying that he looked up an “American encyclopedia.” Obviously, he didn’t know the facts that the Parapsychological Association in the United States has been a legitimate member of American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) since 1969, and the paranormal phenomena have been studied at reputable universities such as Duke and Stanford, and the research results have been published in prestigious academic journals, such as Science and Nature[79]

Many of Yu’s followers have touted Yu as a great scholar, or even The Great Scholar in red China. For example, on July 3, 2005, more than 200 people participated in “Yu Guangyuan Academic and Thought Conference,” held in Beijing, to celebrate Yu’s 90th birthday[80]. In the gathering, He Zuoxiu gave a speech which later was published under the title of Comrade Yu Guangyuan as the Big Scholar and the Big Thinker[81]. And here is how Gong Yuzhi touted Yu:

“One of Yu Guangyuan’s characteristics is his broad knowledge. His knowledgeability is not what commonly called ‘across Chinese and Western’ or ‘across ancient and present,’ rather, his knowledgeability is across two sciences, natural science and social science. He is an academician in the Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences, however, his root is in natural science.”[82]

So, exactly how knowledgeable is Yu? In a book published in 2005, Yu told a story about a class which had “deep educational significance”: When he was in high school, a math teacher asked his students to measure the dimensions of a piece of paper with a ruler, and then calculate its area. What impressed Yu the most was that he learned the concept of unreliable number: if the minimum scale on the ruler is millimeter, then the digits below it are unreliable, therefore, only the first digit of unreliable number is meaningful. Yu wrote:

“Although that class lasted for only a few dozen minutes, its impact on me in the education of scientific spirit, scientific attitude, and scientific method was very profound. More than seventy years have passed since then, but I haven’t forgotten about it.……Several decades later, I turned from a middle school student to a doctoral supervisor. Not sure exactly which year, I recruited doctoral graduate students in economics. Seven people applied. I gave them a question: a certain unit has about 23 people, on average each person eats about 15 apples per months, about how many apples the unit consumes each month? None of the applicants answered the question correctly. The examinees were stumped by 23 x 15, a question even a pupil would feel too easy, simply because a few ‘abouts’ were inserted. It was actually an extremely easy question, however, because they had not learned ‘the four arithmetic operations of meaningful figures,’ they all failed.”[83]

Obviously, Yu has never really mastered the concept of significant figure, otherwise, he would have said “about 20 people” and “about 10 or 20 apples,” instead of “about 23 people” and “about 15 apples.”

Fang Zhouzi and Yu Guangyuan

As mentioned above, based on China’s political and ideological situation in 1995, it is almost certain that Fang’s purpose for stealing Dr. Root-Bernstein’s paper to write his What Is Science was to cater for the anti-pseudoscience movement in China. There are many evidences to prove such a notion. For example, when Fang used his “own examples to explain” the criteria of science, he mentioned qigong and fortune telling repeatedly[84], the first example of course was used most frequently by Yu when he fought against pseudoscience in China, and the second one was mentioned in the joint announcement made by CCP Central Committee and the State Council in 1994[85]. Also, in his article, Fang used the term “science of science” for the subject of philosophy of science, which resembles Yu and his “natural dialectics” followers’ perception of the subject. The most striking similarity occurred in the first paragraph in which Fang laughed at the pseudoscientists who pretended to be Galileo:

“Ever since being vindicated by Catholic Church, Galileo has become a widely recognized hero, and the people who fool around with pseudoscience like to pretend to be Galileo. Of course the Creationists constantly say something like ‘we are just like Galileo of old days,’ even the fortune tellers are angry because fortune-telling is considered unscientific, it is said that they feel like Galileo being prosecuted by the Church. A historic fact of science victory can be actually used as an excuse for anti-science, human being’s thinking is really unthinkable, sometimes.”[84]

It resembles Yu’s following argument written in 1981:

“There is an article even using the example of geocentrism and heliocentrism in the history of science to compare to the propaganda of ‘reading with ears.’ They say that the believers of geocentrism used theocracy and monarchy to destroy and suppress heliocentrism for four hundred years, but they eventually had to vindicate the primary representative of heliocentrism - Galileo. It seems that people’s opposition of reading with ears now is similar to Church’s suppression of heliocentrism then. This is the example of not doing specific analysis on specific matter, making wrong judgment based on empirical evidence. Had we accepted this kind of empirical way of thinking, we would have ruled out the possibility of discussing which is scientific and which is pseudoscientific.”[86]

The fact is, since then, and till today, Fang has been following Yu’s way when he fights against the so called pseudoscience. For example, in 1996, when Fang was trying to derail the ongoing science popularization project - the Mystery Project - he used the stick of pseudoscience for the first time, labeling a submission to the project pseudoscience simply because the author used “Telepathy” as the title[87]. Epistemologically and methodologically, Fang firmly believes that one should not trust his sensory experience, claiming that what you see might just be an illusion. As a matter of fact, Fang developed this belief into a new level, he claims that It Doesn’t Need to Give Evidence When Expose Frauds against Scientific Principle (more on this later). However, just like the miscarriage of China’s anti-qigong movement in 1995, Fang had to wait for another 4 years to gang up with Yu and his followers, especially He Zuoxiu. In May 1999, months before Chinese government’s crackdown on Falun Gong, Fang started his ferocious attack on the organization. Fang’s action drew the attention from Chinese government and the communist party, and he immediately became the favorite son of the anti-pseudoscience fighters. The story will be told in detail in the next part. Here let’s focus on Fang’s connection with Yu.

1. The Pilgrimage

In May 2000, five months before his trip to Beijing, Fang published an article about the history of Lysenkoism in China in his New Threads Monthly. In the article, Fang first introduced the Lysenkoism in formal Soviet Union; then used the rest part of the article to blast the famous Qingdao Genetics Symposium held in 1956, saying the knowledge level of the Michurinist participants was too low, their “logical thinking was chaotic, didn’t grasp the scientific method, and simply didn’t have the ability to engage in scientific research.”[88] Fang even harshly pounded the main theme of the meeting:

“The government’s wishful thinking was that both [Morgan] genetics and Michurinism had one half of the truth, and the development of the science would unify them together. However, such wonderful scenario has rarely been seen in the history of science. History has already demonstrated that those who were correct [in the Symposium] were precisely the few geneticists who disaccorded with the spirit of ‘letting a hundred schools of thought contend.’ I am tempted to speculate: had the meeting made the decision of developing along the direction of Morgan School, rather than wasting the precious scientific research resources on supporting and conniving a true reactionary (ignoring the biological development in the past more than one hundred years), idealistic (denying the material basis of heredity) pseudoscience School; had the genetics alone been taught in middle schools and colleges, rather than together with Michurinism to fool the youth……the level of genetics in China today won’t be like the current condition. Unfortunately, history cannot be assumed, and the distance between China’s genetics today and international level is still about 12 years.”[89]

The symposium was planned, organized, and hosted by Yu, and was regarded by Yu as one of his major accomplishments in his career as the ideology Czar in China’s science community[90]. It is lauded “a turning point in the history of biology in the People’s Republic of China” by Li Peishan, one of the organizers and Yu’s subordinates[91], and Dr. Tan Jiazhen, one of the most important geneticists who participated in the meeting[92]. Dr. Laurence Schneider wrote:

“Thus the Qingdao Symposium gained a legendary status in the Chinese natural sciences community both because of its specific relationship to Lysenkoism and because it heated up the dialogue on problems common to all scientists, indeed, to all intellectuals in China.”[93]

Therefore, Fang’s criticism against the symposium was like saying Yu’s most valuable possession is a piece of garbage. The question is: Why did Fang do so?

Although many people thought that Fang was not educated in the way of the world, and Fang indeed has been trying to pretend to be unworldly – for example, his buddy Sima Nan has written an article entitled Unworldly Fang Zhouzi -, he is actually as shrewd and cunning as anyone could imagine. The fact is, besides the backstage manipulations, one major tactics Fang used to get his columns in China’s newspapers was by attacking repeatedly the newspapers he was coveting, accusing them of publishing erroneous, pseudoscientific, or plagiarized articles, among other things[94]. An old Chinese saying goes: Want to be an officer? Murder, set fire, then wait for an offer from the government [95]! Fang knows the trick very well. Therefore, Fang was using the same trick to draw Yu’s attention to him: Here comes the top geneticist from America who also knows the history of science.
Indeed, when Fang met Yu for the first time on Nov. 14, 2000, at Yu’s invitation, which was boasted as “the meeting between the old hero and the rising star of anti-pseudoscience,” they mainly discussed Fang’s article on the Qingdao Symposium. According to Liu Huajie, who accompanied Fang to Yu’s apartment, Yu admitted his mistake that he didn’t consider the pseudoscientific aspect of the dispute at the time[96]. A few months later, Yu, together with his old subordinate in the Propaganda Department, Li Peishan, wrote an article to acknowledge that point formally:

“At that time, we treated the opposing sides as different schools, which was the premise of the meeting. The so called ‘letting a hundred schools of thought contend’ meant just that. One of the tasks in scientific work is to expose the true colors of anti-science and pseudoscience, which we didn’t do enough at the time. ……It would have been great had I been able to point out explicitly that what Lysenko did was anti-science and pseudoscience.”[97]

Fang, on the other hand, waited more than a year to publish the above article on his New Threads, and unlike his other articles which would be recycled over and over, Fang didn’t republish his article criticizing the Qingdao Symposium until 13 years later[98].

The significance of the meeting between Fang Zhouzi and Yu Guangyuan to Fang’s rise in China could hardly be underestimated, because, to some extent, it symbolized that Fang was designated as the legal heir to the anti-pseudoscience regime in China. That’s why both Fang and Liu Huajie tried really hard to publicize the event: to Fang, he wanted to use the event to consolidate his base; and to Liu, he wanted to announce that they had found a new leader[99].

Showing off
The meeting between Yu and Fang on Nov. 14, 2000, was reported on the front page of Science Times’ Reading Weekly, published on Nov. 17, 2000. The Title was: “Don’t Let Your Gray Hair Down”: Yu Guangyuan the Old Hero of Anti-pseudoscience and Fang Zhouzi the Rising Star of Anti-pseudoscience Chat in Apartment. The inset picture shows that Fang (right) was showing his New Threads website to Yu (left). The standing person was Guo Zhengyi (1933-2012), one of Fang’s strongest backers. Dr. Liu Huajie, under a penname Wen Mu, wrote the article and took the picture.

Showing off, again
On Nov. 20, 2000, Fang posted on his New Threads the pictures his meeting with Yu Guangyuan.
Upper: Fang showing Yu his New Threads;
Lower: Group picture of Fang Zhouzi, Liu Huajie, Guo Zhengyi, and Yu Guangyuan.

The fact is, Yu begun promoting Fang even before he met him. In September 1999, about two months after the official crackdown of Falun Gong, the inaugural issue of Science and Atheism was published. On the cover of the issue was Yu’s photo, and inside the issue were articles by Yu and his followers (Gong Yuzhi, He Zuoxiu, Guo Zhengyi, Sima Nan, Chen Zujia, etc.), and an article by Fang, Dialogue between Theists and Atheists[100]. It turned out that Fang’s article was plagiarized from an article published on The Secular Web, and he posted on his New Threads on June 21, 1999[101]. On the other hand, although Science and Atheism magazine claims that it is sponsored by Chinese Atheist Society, a society initiated by philosopher Ren Jiyu (任继愈, 1916-2009) in 1970s, there is evidence suggesting that it was under Yu’s manipulation, at least at its beginning. First, according to a People’s Daily report, the magazine was “aided by the Committee for Promoting the Alliance between Natural Science and Social Science of the China Association for Science and Technology[102], which, known as “Two-Science Alliance,” was formed in 1986 under Yu’s suggestion and leadership, according to Gong Yuzhi[103]. To some extent, the Alliance is a replica or duplication of the Chinese Society for Dialectics of Nature[104].

The Alliance between Yu and Fang
The covers of the inaugural issue (left) and the Supplement issue (right) of Science and Atheism, published right after the crackdown of Falun Gong in 1999, showing Yu Guangyuan and He Zuoxiu, respectively. Fang’s plagiarized article, Dialogue between Theists and Atheists, was published in the inaugural issue.

Also in 1999, Yu mentioned Fang in an article, saying that he, after reading one of Fang’s textual research articles, was convinced even more that Mr. Guo Moruo, the ex-President of CAS, didn’t commit plagiarism in 1940s[105]. In June 2001, Yu set up a personal website; and one of the two “Friendly Links” he provided on the website was Fang’s New Threads (see screen image below.)

Links to the Friendly networks
In June 2001, Yu Guangyuan opened his personal website, [www.yuguangyuan.net]. Fang posted the website’s address on his New Threads on July 5, and Yu listed Fang’s New Threads address on his website as one of only two “friendly links.” The other link directed to a website for old people. Yu’s website was closed in 2012.

In April 2002, Yu delivered a speech at Peking University, and during the discussion session, he repeatedly mentioned Fang’s name, and his activity against “academic corruption.”[106] In 2003, Yu published at least two articles after reading one of Fang’s books, and in one of them, the first sentence was: “About ten days ago, Fang presented to me a book he wrote, Disillusionment of Longevity.”[107] In 2004, Yu mentioned Fang again in another article[108]. And in 2006, before suffering from a mild cerebral thrombosis, Yu reiterated his “basic agreement” with Fang’s opinion about Qingdao Genetics Symposium[109]. On July 30, 2013, Fang posted Yu’s letter to Hu Yaobang, dated May 28, 1982, on his microblogs and the New Threads[110]. That was the first time the letter was made public – in 2000, Yu was trying to publish it in a magazine, but he failed[111]. It is likely that the letter was given to Fang by Yu personally. Fang is Yu’s designated heir.

Awarded for nothing
Fang’s trip to Beijing in October-November, 2000, was very fruitful, not only he met every person he needed to know for his upcoming anti-fraud, anti-pseudoscience, and anti-anti-science career, he was even awarded for something he hadn’t done yet: science popularization. The picture shows that Fang was awarded in the high profile International Conference on Science Communication held in Beijing in November 2000, which was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology, China Association for Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China[112], even though Fang was not listed as a formal participant[113].


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