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Open Letter to Nature: Part XXXII: The Fangangsters (II): He Zuoxiu, a Shameless Party Man (I) (4989 查看)

November 15, 2013 07:33PM
【Due to the webpage capacity,only one third of the article is posted here. The full-length article is attached as a PDF file.】


Shamelessness Shouldn’t Be Anyone’s Nature──An Open Letter to Nature (Part XXXII)



Xin Ge, Ph. D.

Columbia, SC, USA



The Fangangsters (II): He Zuoxiu, a Shameless Party Man (I)


【CONTENTS】


An Underground Communist from a Dilapidated Family

1. Deep Background
2. Red Underground

An Ardent Stalinist in the Central Propaganda Department

1. A Redhot Cadre
2. A Backstage Manipulator Who Shook CAS
3. A (Fake) Expert in Quantum Mechanics
4. A Real Lysenkoist
5. A Maoist Architect

(1) A Proud Confession
(2) Evildoing
(3) Fang Zhouzi Came to He’s Defense, by Lying
(4) Fang Zhouzi Came to He’s Defense, by Fighting

“A (Fake) Pioneer of Hydrogen Bomb Theory in China”

1. Back to Science, Politically
2. A Renowned Hydrogen Bomb Expert?
3. History Doesn’t Lie

(1) Missing in Record
(2) Missing in Action

4. A Fly and Three Steeds, a True Story

“A (Fake) Inventor of Falsifiability Theory”

1. A Redhot Philosopher of Science
2. A False Forerunner of the Falsifiability Theory
3. A Marxist Master Who Doesn’t Know Marxism

A Prize-winning Maoist Particle Physicist: The Scandalous Straton Model

1. Chairman Mao’s Obsession
2. The Great Proletarian Scientific Revolution
3. Under the Brilliant Illumination of Mao Tse-tung’s Thought
4. Praised and Cursed
5. A Pseudoscientist Trying to Share Nobel Prize
6. Fang Zhouzi Came to He’s Defense, Again

A Gangster of the Gang of Four

1. Scifooling
2. Anti-Einstein
3. Appraise Legalism, Criticize Confucianism

(1) A Political Campaign Activist
(2) A History Forger
(3) A Plagiarist
(4) A Fake Marxist
(5) A Supporter for Dictatorship
(6) A Historian of Science Who Doesn’t Know Descartes



Among the Yuists, He Zuoxiu is the most “outstanding” person: he is Yu’s first hand-picked protégé; he is the only Yuist who has become not only a scientist, but also an academician. Consequently, Mr. He is The most notorious scientist in China, being scolded and cursed by millions of Chinese people constantly in the last dozen years. Of course, He has been Fang’s strongest and most active and vocal backer, proclaiming explicitly and publicly that he “always supports Fang Zhouzi.” Fang Zhouzi, on the other hand, has been He’s most loyal and courageous defender, and in 2005 alone, Fang published 3 articles in a newspaper to defend him, specifically. In January 2013, just a couple of months after receiving his John Maddox Prize for “standing up for science,” Fang Zhouzi awarded He Zuoxiu the inaugural New Threads Scientific Spirit Prize, valued at 10,000 Swiss Franc, five times more than what Fang received from the British[1].


Currency exchange
On January 13, 2013, Fang Zhouzi awarded He Zuoxiu the New Threads Scientific Spirit Prize. Although the prize had a relatively high monetary value, it was ignored by almost all Chinese news media, until Kaifeng.com, an anti-evil cult website controlled by Chinese national security agency, and to which both Fang and He have secret ties, reported the news. (Source of the photo: 吴兴川, 2013年1月13日 14:25.)



The award Schemes
Two months after receiving the British inaugural John Maddox Prize (top left), Fang awarded his mentor/boss He Zuoxiu the inaugural New Threads Scientific Spirit Prize (top right). In 2013, Fang bought himself two more “Pheasant Awards,” one was “The Cliff Robertson Sentinel Award” (lower left) by a commercial organization based in a residential building at 716 West Ave. Austin, TX 78701, named Association of Certified Fraud Examiners[2]; and the other was “The Latttude Integrity Award” (lower right), from a pharmaceutical company located at 6364 Ferris Square, San Diego, CA 92121, called Latitude Pharmaceuticals Inc., which is founded and operated by Fang’s followers[3].


So, why would He, a Marxist physicist, “always support” Fang? And why would Fang, a GMO promoter hired by a U. S. biotech firm, always defend He? Who is He? In the following few parts of this serial Open Letter to Nature, I will answer these questions.

An Underground Communist from a Dilapidated Family

1. Deep Background

According to his own words, He was born in 1927 in Shanghai to a big family:

“My great-great-grandfather He Jun was a member of Imperial Academy, and his highest position was the head of the logistics department in Li Hongzhang’s Huai Army. Because of his excellent performance in quelling the Taiping Rebellion, he asked for an official job for his child during the reward process. With his blessing, my great grandfather He Zhidao became an official at an early age of 20 years old, and he had held the positions of salt commissioner, attorney general, intendant, and additional position of supervisor of Hankow Custom, all of them were the so called lucrative jobs.”[4]

Apparently, He Zhidao had accumulated enough wealth during his bureaucrat career that he retired at the age of 49, and built his residence called He’s Garden (何园), which is still one of the major tourist attractions in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. So, why did He Zhidao retire so young? Here is He Zuoxiu’s explanation:

“My great grandfather tried his best to uphold the sovereignty and dignity of the state when he was dealing with foreign affairs as the supervisor of Hankow Custom, and he treated the foreigners with a tough and stern attitude, while his bosses were scared of the foreigners. He had a heart to serve the country but in vain, and facing the corruption and the incompetency of the Qing government, he angrily retired from his official life.”[5]

Please note that there is absolutely no evidence, direct or indirect, to substantiate He’s story, which was originally told by one of He Zuoxiu’s uncles in his deathbed[6]. We do know, however, that based on He Zhidao’s salary from the Qing Government, he could absolutely not afford the cost of building He’s Garden[7].

He’s Garden occupies an area of more than 3 acres, the gross floor area is about 80 thousand square feet, and the corridor under the roof is about 1 mile long. However, He Zuoxiu has never had the chance to spend a night in the garden. In early 1900s, He Zhidao moved his family to Shanghai:

“My great grandfather lived in He’s Garden for 18 years. He could have enjoyed his whole life there with wine and poetry. However, in 1900, the Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China; the Qing government was defeated, signed the Boxer Protocol, and paid an indemnity of 450 million taels of silver, equivalent to one tael per Chinese. He felt that China was going to be subjugated, and he was not going to disregard the fate of the country and the nation. Deeply influenced by the Westernization Group, my great grandfather, at the age of nearly 70 years old, made a gutsy decision: retirement no more! He gave up his garden, led his descendants with a huge fund to Shanghai to engage in industrial undertaking in 1901, determined to revitalize the national economy, and save China by industrialization.”[8]

Unfortunately, He Zhidao’s plan didn’t work out as he wished; instead, his wealth disappeared almost completely due to “the ignorance of western laws and was cheated by Jewish businessman Silas Aaron Hardoon.”[9]

After the business failure, He Zhidao made another decision: sent his grandsons to the West to study: three of his grandsons received advanced degrees from the universities in the United States: He Shizhen (何世槇) and He Shimei (何世枚) received their law degrees from the University of Michigan, and He Shijie (何世榤), He Zuoxiu’s father, received his doctorate in engineering from Cornell University. However, He Zuoxiu’s father died of typhoid shortly after his returning to China, so He Zuoxiu’s mother had to work as a clerk to support her family.


A feudal bureaucrat and his revolutionary descendant
Left: He Zuoxiu’s great grandfather He Zhidao (1835-1909); Right: He Zuoxiu at the He’s Garden in 1999[10].



Old brothers and old garden
In April 2013, He’s Garden celebrated its 130th birthday. Nearly one hundred members of He’s family participated in the celebration. The picture on the left shows He Zuoxiu (left) and his elder brother He Zuorong, a respected and retired social scientist; the picture on the right shows the entrance of the Garden, the five Chinese characters on the wall read: The First Garden in Late Qing Dynasty[11].


2. Red Underground

In 1945, He Zuoxiu enrolled in Shanghai Jiaotong University, majoring in chemistry. However, He soon determined to major in physics to save the country:

“In August 1945, American dropped two atomic bombs in Japan, which shocked He Zuoxiu tremendously: ‘After reading the list [of the Smyth Report], they were all world-famous physicists. Physics is too important! I must do this one!’”[12]

Also during the Jiaotong era, He read L. A. Leontev’s Political Economics, which made him realized that “Only Marxism can save China.”[13]

In 1947, He Zuoxiu transferred to Tsinghua University in Beijing because he was afraid that China would be separated into two parts, with the southern part where Shanghai is located, controlled by the Nationalist, and the northern part, where Beijing is located, controlled by the Communist. At Tsinghua, He changed his major to physics, and joined in CCP in about two months. In early 1948, He was sent to a “liberated area,” an areas controlled by CCP, to study and “summarize the experience of the student movement.” Such an experience, termed “CCP elementary schooling,” was invaluable to He’s Party Man career, because it basically offset his “reactionary” family background, and made him an “old revolutionary.” What impressed He the most in the “elementary school” was his reading Chairman Mao’s The Present Situation and Our Tasks. More than half a century later, He would repeatedly tell China’s college students:

“How to be a man? I think the most important thing is to recognize the times, recognize the trend of social development, and be the active promoter of the times.”[14]

By that, He means following the leadership of CCP unconditionally. Back to Tsinghua, He Zuoxiu organized at least three student movements against the nationalist government, and before Beijing being taken over by CCP, He had become the secretary of the underground student CCP branch at Tsinghua University’s Science College[15].

An Ardent Stalinist in the Central Propaganda Department

1. A Redhot Cadre

The turning point in He’s life occurred in 1950, one year before his graduation from Tsinghua. The following story has been told by He Zuoxiu for multiple times:

“In 1950, Stalin published his Marxism and Problems of Linguistics, proposing for the first time that language does not have class character. In November 1950, Comrade Yu Guangyuan who was working in the Propaganda Department of the CCP Central Committee came to Tsinghua University to host a theory symposium, and he picked a few young students to discuss Marxism. In the symposium, I asked Comrade Guangyuan: ‘In his Marxism and Problems of Linguistics, Stalin said that language has no class character, then, following Stalin’s opinion, whether we can say that natural science doesn’t have class character either?’

“Probably because I asked Comrade Guangyuan such a theoretical question, in 1951, after graduating from Tsinghua University’s physics department, I was assigned to the Theoretical Education Division of the Central Propaganda Department, working under Comrade Guangyuan. The mission of the Central Propaganda Department is to propagandize Marxism-Leninism, and the precondition to do the job is learning, thus I began the transition from studying physics to studying Marxism-Leninism systematically and seriously. In 1952, the Central Propaganda Department established the Science Division, and I worked there for 5years.”[16]


The 5-year experience in the Propaganda Department established He’s Party Man foundation. According to himself, He had taught quantum physics to Lu Dingyi, the director of the Propaganda Department, for nine months[17]; he had gotten acquainted with Hu Qiaomu, Chairman Mao’s secretary and the actual boss of the Propaganda Department[18]; and he had talked to, as the representative of the Propaganda Department, more than one hundred top scientists in China[19]. More than a half century later, He would still proudly claim:

“I was a popular cadre in the Propaganda Department, able to see the director directly. Lu Dingyi liked me, Hu Qiaomu liked me also.”[20]

“There were few Party members in the physics circle [at that time], some important scientists were all recruited into the Party by me, even Qian Sanqiang was recruited by me. Qian Sanqiang said himself: ‘Little He is my leader, the person who enlightened me.’”[21]


Also according to He, he was the person who made the salvage of Kunqu Opera (昆曲) possible[22], and it was he, along with Gong Yuzhi and another person, who suggested to the Chinese leaders to build atomic bomb in 1954[23]. He even claimed that he played a fundamental role in the establishment of the Kunming Institute of Botany:

“Academician Qin Renchang talked to me for one hour, presenting the fact that Yunnan has a complex climate, abundant species, which was about 60-70% of the total species in the world, so it should have a botany research institute, and it was the wish of the botanical community. I thought it was reasonable, so I wrote a big report to Lu Dingyi. Lu Dingyi transferred it to CAS, which established the Kunming Institute of Botany immediately.”[24]

It is certain that these stories have been mixed with He’s habitual exaggerations, more or less. For example, the truth behind the atomic bomb story is this: it was Qian Sanqiang (Tsien San-tsiang, 钱三强, 1913-1992), China’s Oppenheimer, who talked about the project to He and his colleagues in the Propaganda Department, and He and his colleagues wrote the report to relay Qian’s idea to the Party leaders[25]. Also, according to the official website of Kunming Institute of Botany, it was originated in 1938 as the Yunnan Provincial Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Botany, turned into a CAS work station in 1950, and rose to the current status, the Kunming Institute of Botany, in 1959[26]. By that time, He had left the Propaganda Department to become a physicist for about 3 years, therefore, He’s story must have been contaminated with some fabrications.

However, the core of He’s stories is true: the Propaganda Department was in charge of CAS, and the leaders of CAS were scared to death of the Department, nicknamed The Palace of Hell by Chairman Mao in the 1960s mainly because of its mightiness. Understandably, He could be as powerful as he claimed simply because of his affiliation. However, He was more than that.

2. A Backstage Manipulator Who Shook CAS

The first half of the 1950s in China was characterized by mimicking the Soviet Union in every aspect, and in the science community, mimicking the Soviet Union meant to criticize the “bourgeois sciences.”

According to Yu Guangyuan, CCP decided to take control over natural sciences in early 1950s, and the responsibility was initially fallen on the shoulders of the Propaganda Department’s Theoretical Education Division, where Yu Guangyuan was its deputy director[27]. In 1952, the Propaganda Department formed the Science Division in charge of science affairs, He Zuoxiu became one of the first members of the division, and Yu Guangyuan would be soon transferred to that division to be He’s direct boss[28]. And it was under that background the following story, told by Gong Yuzhi in 2005 and published after his death in 2007[29], occurred.

In early 1952, Gong Yuzhi was taking a sick leave from his chemistry study at Tsinghua University and preparing to follow He Zuoxiu’s footsteps to become a communist propagandist. Having heard that the resonance theory was being criticized in the Soviet Union, Gong tried to teach himself quantum chemistry and quantum mechanics. Then he found some obvious errors in a couple of articles published in Chinese Science Bulletin, a publication of Chinese Academy of Sciences. One of these articles was intended to introduce an article published in the Soviet Union’s Pravda, however, the writer didn’t realize that the original article was distributed in several pages of the newspaper, so he or she stopped after translating only the first page, making the introduction incomplete. The other article introduced the Soviet Union’s protein chemistry; however, the writer translated microscope into kaleidoscope. So Gong Yuzhi decided to write an article to criticize Chinese Science Bulletin.

Gong told his plan to his Tsinghua buddy He Zuoxiu, who was already a government official. He Zuoxiu agreed with Gong that the Bulletin should be criticized, however, He thought it was not enough just criticize the low level errors without bringing the matters to the height of politics. He told Gong that the Bulletin only published a brief note about the publication of the Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, without any follow-ups, which meant that they had been neglecting politics. Also, the Bulletin didn’t promote a new invention called “nodular cast iron” or “spheroidal cast iron,” which indicated their contempt for New China’s own achievements. Gong wrote the article according to He’s idea, and the article was published in People’s Daily under the title of “Correct the Tendency of Detachment from Politics and Practice in Scientific Publications: Comment on the Second Volume of Chinese Science Bulletin.”[30]

The article made the CAS leaders, including its President Guo Moruo (郭沫若, 1892-1978) and Vice President Zhu Kezhen (Chu Kochen, 竺可桢, 1890-1974), extremely nervous, they apparently thought that the article was a strong warning signal sent to them from the top authority, so they tried desperately to correct their wrongs: Dr. Zhu Kezhen paid a personal visit to Gong’s home and offered Gong a job at the Bulletin; the Bulletin published a self-criticism, re-published Gong’s article, and Gong’s other articles, including those criticizing the resonance theory; CAS even reorganized the Bulletin’s editorial office so that such political mistakes won’t happen again. Of course, Gong Yuzhi, who had already been assigned to work in the Propaganda Department, didn’t accept the offer to work for the lowly CAS Bulletin. To guarantee the political correctness of its publications, Zhu Kezhen relocated his hometown fellow Xu Liangying (许良英, 1920-2013), a graduate of Zhejiang University and a CCP member, to CAS.


Being watched closely by watching dogs
Clockwise from upper left: Guo Moruo, the President of CAS from 1949 to 1978; Zhu Kezhen, the Vice President of CAS from 1949 to 1966; He Zuoxiu (1927-), and Gong Yuzhi (1929-2007), the life-long communist propagandists. The background is an article published by Gong Yuzhi in People’s Daily on March 29, 1952, entitled “Against Idealism and Mechanicalism in Organic Chemistry.”[31]


None of the above episodes would have happened without He Zuoxiu’s manipulation. No wonder He was redhot in the Propaganda Department, and was ranked three grades higher in the bureaucratic ladder than every other entry level college graduate, including Gong Yuzhi[32]. The funny thing is, Mr. Xu Liangying, who came in Beijing because of the shakeup in CAS caused by He Zuoxiu, would become He’s deadliest foe in 1980s.

In defending He, Fang Zhouzi said in an article published in 2005 that He told him that he had never written any articles criticizing gene and resonance theories[33]. And based on what He told him, Fang accused those who were criticizing He of spreading rumors. The truth is, although no articles criticizing the resonance theory under He’s name could be found, many such articles under Gong Yuzhi’s name were published in 1952. As mentioned above, Gong published an article in People’s Daily on March 29, 1952 to criticize the “idealism and mechanicalism in organic chemistry”[31]. Also, the third issue of Chinese Science Bulletin in 1952 was devoted almost entirely to criticize the resonance theory, and a total of seven such articles were authored or co-authored by Gong Yuzhi. The criticism against the resonance theory in China lasted nearly 30 years, until a colloquium was convened by the Education Ministry in 1981, and only after that the theory could be formally taught in classrooms[34]. The question is: without He’s backstage manipulation, how could Gong, a college student on sick leave, be so powerful? It is said that Adolf Hitler never personally killed a person[35]. However, even if it is true, such a fact doesn’t exonerate him from a murderer charge. By the same token, even if He Zuoxiu indeed never wrote a single article criticizing the resonance theory, he was still responsible for the senseless murdering of science in China, simply because of his role in plotting and organizing these activities. And his shameless denial of the “scientific crime” he committed more than a half century ago makes the case even worse.

3. A (Fake) Expert in Quantum Mechanics

The fact is, even though He could deny his involvement in the criticism against the resonance theory, he couldn’t do the same to the criticism against quantum mechanics, because he couldn’t destroy the evidence.

On May 21, 1952, He published in People’s Daily an article entitled The Science Community in the Soviet Union Criticizes the Idealist Viewpoints in Quantum Mechanics. Although the article was to introduce what was happening in the Soviet Union, He nonetheless spent the last one fifth of the article to urge Chinese scientists to do the same:

“What does the criticism against the idealism in quantum mechanics, conducted by the scientists in the Soviet Union, mean to our country’s scientists? What lessons should be learned from it? First of all, it demonstrates again the guidance role of dialectical materialism. [It] strongly criticizes again the contempt, shown by some scientific workers, with philosophy, with the guidance role of Marxism and Leninism in scientific work, and the harmful thought that Marxism and Leninism are only useful to biological sciences and social sciences, but useless to other sciences such as physics. It demonstrates again how essential it is to keep a close tie between scientists and philosophers; how necessary it is for scientists to learn Marxism and Leninism!”[36]

He would keep his belief till today: He has been one of the most active promoters and participants of the notorious “Two-Science Alliance” which is nothing but an institutional implementation of the “the guidance role of dialectical materialism.” As a matter of fact, He is so proud of his expertise in both Marxist philosophy and modern science, that he claims that he or his work is irreplaceable because only a few Chinese people who know both[37]. So, who else is among the endangered species? So far, He has only identified Fang Zhouzi as one of them[38]. He has also been holding a professorship at Peking University in philosophy since last century, and he has advised more than a dozen Ph. D. students in the area (more on this later).

The second lesson Chinese scientists should learn from the criticism against the idealism in quantum mechanics in the Soviet Union is, according to He Zuoxiu:

“[We] should draw lessons from the criticism against idealism in quantum mechanics, and further develop the criticism against idealism in physics. We know that idealism has infiltrated into physics in all kinds of forms, and Machism even has direct relationship and connections with physics. Lenin used to point out explicitly the reasons for the infiltration of physics by idealism, the first one is the mathematization of theoretical physics (He’s note: which means the mathematization of physics, doesn’t mean that physics should not use mathematics), therefore resulting in the oblivion of matter by mathematicians, and drawing the conclusion that ‘matter is eliminated,’ what left are equations only. Another reason is relativism, i. e. the theory about the relativity of human knowledge. Under the condition of not understanding the dialectics, the Theory of Relativity will inevitably lead to idealism.”[39]

Again, He has been following the above doctrines almost faithfully in most of his life time, unless the CCP leadership forces him to give up his belief. There is no doubt that when He mentioned the influence of Machism in physics, he was referring Einstein and his Theory of Relativity, which would be criticized by him during the Cultural Revolution. It is noteworthy that He wasn’t able to differentiate relativism from the Theory of Relativity when he was attempting to criticize the latter. As a matter of fact, He admitted in 1990 that he didn’t know quantum mechanics at the time when he was criticizing the idealism in quantum mechanics[40].

The concluding paragraph of He’s article was in typical He’s style - exaggeration and hysteria:

“All of the people’s scientists and progressive scientific workers should fight for further criticizing the idealism in physics, and building the physics which is under the guidance of dialectical materialism.”[41]


A life-long Stalinist
He Zuoxiu has been keeping criticizing the idealism in physics since early 1950s, and he is probably the only Stalinist left in China, or in the world. The background of the above image is portions of He’s article published in People’s Daily in 1952: The Science Community in the Soviet Union Criticizes the Idealist Viewpoints in Quantum Mechanics.


4. A Real Lysenkoist

The most dramatic event in the science community in the Soviet Union after WWII was the rise of Lysenkoism, and Yu Guangyuan, who hosted the legendary Qingdao Genetics Symposium in 1956, was very proud of the role he played in stopping the overflow of that pseudoscience in China[42]. He Zuoxiu, on the other hand, has tried desperately to separate himself from the events.

As mentioned above, He told Fang Zhouzi in 2005 that he had never written an article criticizing [Morgan’s] gene theory[33]. The event leading to He’s denial was, in August 2005, an editor with Epoch Times, a website connected to Falun Gong, assimilated several internet posts into a cohesive article, entitled He Zuoxiu, the Man and His Deeds. In the article, He’s misdeeds were listed extensively and specifically. About He’s involvement in the Lysenkoism in China, the article says:

“In former Soviet Union there was a Lysenko incident. Lysenko believed that new species are generated by accumulating quantitative variations, which will lead to qualitative changes. In the areas of genetics and breeding, Lysenko had opposed Morgan’s genetics since 1930s, and he tagged Morgan genetics with a ‘bourgeois science’ label. Because Stalin trusted him, Lysenko advanced rapidly. Many talented biologists in Soviet Union were affected and brutally persecuted. At that time, China also had a national campaign against gene theory, strongly promoting Lysenko’s Michurinist biology, and scientific truth become a victim of political interference. Under the banner of ‘learning from the big brother Soviet Union,’ He Zuoxiu et al. chanted that ‘Michurinist biology is the great achievement obtained by applying Marxism-Leninism consciously and thoroughly in biological sciences’ (see reference 3), and launched group attack on our country’s renowned biologist Tan Jiazhen (Morgan’s student), who was forced to admit wrongdoing for his adhering to the Morgan theory, so our biologists suffered a fatal blow, and never recovered (see references 4 and 5). At the same time, there was rapid development in biological sciences abroad.”[43]

The third reference mentioned in the above paragraph was an anonymous article published in People’s Daily on June 29, 1952, entitled Struggle for the Persistence of Michurinism in Biological Sciences[44]. The article was divided into five sections, and 3 of the sectional titles were:

“1. Michurinist biology is the great achievement obtained by applying Marx-Leninism consciously and thoroughly in biological sciences;”

“2. Michurinist biology is not a ‘branch’ in biological sciences; rather, it is the fundamental revolution of biological sciences;”

“5. Learning Michurinist biology in practical work, using Michurinist biology to transform every branch of biological sciences thoroughly, and struggling for the persistence of Michurinism in biological sciences.”[45]


It is generally acknowledged that the article played a pivotal role in the Lysenkonization in China’s biological sciences[46], the dispute, however, was about He Zuoxiu’s role in writing the article. In Behind the Demonization of Academician He Zuoxiu published in 2005, Fang refuted the accusations against He’s active role by saying that the People’s Daily article was a report after a symposium; He did participated in the symposium, however, as a young cadre just graduated from a college, he was probably the most junior participant, so he was not responsible for the article[47]. The question is: was He Zuoxiu as innocent as Fang said? The answer is: No!

On July 12, 2007, exactly one month after Gong Yuzhi’s death, Huang Qinghe and Huang Shun’e, a couple who had worked with Yu Guangyuan and He Zuoxiu in the Science Division in the 1950s, were interviewed by two journalists. And here is Huang Qinghe’s comment on He Zuoxiu:

“He Zuoxiu did some good things in the Science Division, he also did something which is hard to comment on. He was in the Science Division quite long, and I also felt strange that he majored in physics, [however], he was involved in everything, participating in criticisms everywhere, criticizing Liang Sicheng’s architecture, criticizing the Research of A Dream of Red Mansions, criticizing The Life of Wu Xun, he participated in everything, he was also bold to write articles, bold to criticize. His position and way of thinking, including on the issue of Michurinism, were all mainstream, in agreement with the higher level. He used to say that he was a small potato at the time, doing things by following the orders, whatever the Party let him do, he would do, you should not blame me personally.”[48]

So, did or did not He Zuoxiu write the article? According to Huang Qinghe, the People’s Daily article was written by six people, He Zuoxiu was one of them. In addition, He took part in the Qingdao Symposium, but he didn’t say anything during the meeting and after the meeting, and till today. “He Zuoxiu has been avoiding this issue all along, ……He wrote the article, therefore he has better say something about it,” said Huang Qinghe[49].

In other words, even though we don’t know the exact content and extent of He’s contribution to the article, we do know He did make his contribution, and more importantly, we do know that He not only has been keeping avoiding the issue, he also has been keeping lying about his involvement. And Fang, intentionally or not, lied for He.


Public humiliation by political gangsters
In late 1952, Dr. Tan Jiazhen (C. C. Tan, 谈家桢, 1909-2008, lower left), arguably the most accomplished and recognized geneticist in China, published a self-criticism article in both Chinese Science Bulletin (upper left) and Bulletin of Biology (upper right). The title of the article was: Criticize My Erroneous Opinions about Michurinist Biological Sciences. The first paragraph reads: “Two months ago, when I gave a self-criticism report in front of the entire body of students, faculty members, staffs, and workers of Zhejiang University, I criticized preliminarily my old erroneous opinions about Michurinist biological sciences. Then, I read the article Struggle for the Persistence of Michurinism in Biological Sciences, published in People’s Daily on June 29, I have further understandings.”[50]
The background of the above image is the first page of Tan’s self-mutilation article published in Chinese Science Bulletin.


5. A Maoist Architect

In China, He Zuoxiu is best known as an “omnipotent academician” simply because he dares to open his mouth on everything, literally. The fact is, He has been omnipotent ever since he “mastered Marxism” when he was in the Propaganda Department, because he believes that Marxism is the ultimate truth and should play the guidance role in everything.

(1) A Proud Confession

In the early 1950s, the Chinese authority decided to tear down the old Beijing constructions, especially the big wall surrounding the city. The decision met fierce opposition from Mr. Liang Sicheng (梁思成, 1901-1972), the top architect in China at the time[51]. The following story was told by He Zuoxiu, proudly, in 1990:

“During 1954-1955, a revivalist aesthetic ideology emerged in our country’s architectural work, that is, they put undue emphasis on the inheritance of national style, requiring that every new building to add a ‘big roof,’ thus resulting in waste in economic development. Chairman Mao said several times: ‘big roof’ is not pretty either. Therefore, the task of criticizing the wrong ideological trend in architecture, i. e. criticizing Professor Liang Sicheng’s architectural thought, was handed to the Propaganda Department. In 1955, in a Politburo meeting, Director Lu Dingyi wrote a note to Comrade Peng Zhen [Beijing’s CCP chief and mayor at the time], asking him to lead the criticism work, and Comrade Peng Zhen agreed. Then Comrade Yu Guangyuan took me to see Comrade Peng Zhen. Besides convening related comrades to have a mobilization meeting and giving a speech, Comrade Peng Zhen’s most important decision was to organize a group in the Summer Palace, and the group wrote about a dozen of critical articles. Among the articles, the most persuasive one was written by Comrade Zha Ruqiang, Comment on A Few Problems in Liang Sicheng’s Architectural Theory. I wrote one also, On Some of Liang Sicheng’s Erroneous Opinions about Architecture. It was decided that my article should be published first, so it was published in Learning magazine. After reading the article, Professor Liang Sicheng immediately conducteda relatively serious self-criticism in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and the self-criticism was published in the People’s Daily the next day. After reading the self-criticism, Comrade Peng Zhen convened the authors of the critical articles, saying to them: ‘he has already admitted his mistakes, made self-criticism, how could we continue criticizing him?’ Therefore, he ordered that all of the articles be handed to Professor Liang Sicheng for his reference; however, no newspapers or magazines were allowed to publish articles critical of Liang. Therefore, the movement criticizing Liang was interrupted, and the best article written by Comrade Zha Ruqiang did not get published. Only recently it was collected in the booklet Science and Philosophy Forum as a historical witness to the ‘criticism’ work.”[52]

The other side of the story, told by Yu Guangyuan, who was in charge of the writing group, is like this: after finishing writing the critical articles, Peng Zhen handed them to Liang Sicheng and told him that if he doesn’t stop opposing to the teardown, these articles will be published one by one. Liang immediately surrendered, and the articles were not allowed to be published. However, He Zuoxiu secretly submitted his article to the Learning magazine, and it became the only one getting its way to publication[53]. Yu said later that it was Chairman Mao who stopped the criticism campaign against Liang, and those one or two persons who published their articles without permission were “disobey organization and violate discipline.”[54] In other words, He’s criticism of Liang Sicheng was eager, voluntary, and sincere.

(2) Evildoing

So, exactly what did He write in his article against the wrong ideological trend in architecture? He put five big hats on Liang’s head: revivalism, aestheticism, subjectivism, formalism, and the most frightening one, bourgeois idealism[55]. One might wonder how idealism could have played a role in architecture, here is He’s reasoning:

“From above we can see that Liang Sicheng has a series of serious mistakes in the basic issues in architectural theory. We can also see that the root of his mistakes is bourgeois idealism. All idealists assert that mind precedes matter, and consciousness precedes being. Reflected in the epistemology, these basic idealist viewpoints mean not starting from reality, not considering things historically and comprehensively, instead, they draw various mistake conclusions based solely on their personal preferences and imaginations.”[56]

As mentioned above, Liang Sicheng was completely destroyed, both physically and mentally, by these political gangsters. In the summer of 1955, he made a humiliating self-criticism on a national stage, the title of his speech was Why Do I Love Our Party So Much, in which he said: “I trust the Party just like I trusted my mother when I was little.”[57] About a half year later, he made another speech to criticize himself and to express his loyalty to the Party, and the bombs Liang used in his self-bombardment were exactly the same as those leveled on him by He Zuoxiu (see image below).


Humiliated by a political rogue
In February 1956, Liang Sicheng made yet another self-criticism in a CPPCC meeting, entitled Never Depart from Our Party. The words underlined read: “In the past 20 years or so, I have written many survey reports about China’s architecture, papers and monographs on ancient literature, Chinese architectural history, urban planning, and design theories. The consistent characteristics of these articles and theories are subjective idealist and metaphysical. The design theories I have proposed are formalist and revivalist……which have caused an unhealthy trend of formalism and revivalism in the architecture community, wasted a large amount of construction funds which had been hard-earned by so many workers and peasants with their blood and sweat, obstructed the socialist construction of the motherland, and at the same time, poisoned hundreds of youth, the reserve force of new China’s architect army.”[58]
The background of the above image is the article published in The Complete Works of Liang Sicheng, and the two insets are Liang Sicheng’s bronze statue photo (upper) and He Zuoxiu (lower), respectively.


Of course Liang didn’t mean what he was saying. Two years later, when the demolition of the old Beijing city was over, thus the criticism against him was no longer needed, Liang told his students at Tsinghua:

“Whenever a gate tower was destroyed, it was like that a piece of my flesh was cut off; whenever a segment of city wall was leveled, it was like that one layer of my skin was peeled off.”[59]

The heartbreaking outcry voiced more than a half century ago still makes people weeping today, except for He Zuoxiu, as well as Fang Zhouzi, and the gangsters associated with them.


A paradise lost forever
The garden on the top of Beijing city wall, imagined and designed by Professor Liang Sicheng[60].


(3) Fang Zhouzi Came to He’s Defense, by Lying

He’s reputation among Chinese began to fall, consistently and sharply, right after his involvement in the crackdown of Falun Gong in 1999, and he was so notorious that even Fang’s followers could not help but criticize him, and they were extremely dissatisfied with Fang’s close association with this disgusting old man. On Feb. 22, 2005, Fang posted his first of 3 pro-He serial articles on his New Threads, He Zuoxiu and the Rumor about Maon. In the article, Fang mainly defended He’s major “scientific achievement,” the straton model of elementary particles, which I’ll discuss later; but at the end of the article, Fang made a comment on the completely unrelated story about Liang Sicheng:

“There are other rumors about Academician He on the internet. For example, many people curse him for his suggestion of demolishing Beijing city wall, and the evil cult website even made a rumor saying He caused the death of architects Liang Sicheng and his wife. The fact is, in 1955, Academician He who just recently graduated from college, wrote an article On Some of Liang Sicheng’s Erroneous Opinions about Architecture, which was to criticize the revivalism in Liang Sicheng’s architectural designs, especially his promotion of very expensive ‘big roof’ at any cost. This story was noticed by other people only after it was told by Academician He voluntarily in his recent memoir. Whether his criticisms of Liang Sicheng, which were made when he was young, are justified, they had nothing to do with the demolition of Beijing city wall, and it was even more unrelated to Liang Sicheng’s death in 1972. Wang Jun’s book Beijing Record detailed the dismantlement of Beijing city wall, mentioned many people who suggested or supported [the dismantlement], but He Zuoxiu was not mentioned.”[61]

Of course Fang’s words were soaked in intentional lies. First of all, in 1955, He had graduated from Tsinghua for 4 years, had worked in the Propaganda Department as a 18th grade cadre, three grades higher than the entry level cadres with a college degree, for 4 years, and had participated in and organized countless criticism campaigns against so many things for 4 years. He was a veteran gunman for the communist government, instead of an innocent boy just out of college, as Fang implied.

Secondly, He didn’t just criticize Liang’s “big roof” idea, instead, he tried to fix him as a bourgeois expert, an idealist, and even an anti-Maoist[62]. The fact is, probably because Liang Sicheng’s father was Liang Qichao (梁启超, 1873-1929), arguably the most prominent Chinese figure in the early years of 20th century, Chairman Mao was pretty benign to Liang, and the assignment to these gunmen/writers was to criticize Liang only academically or economically, rather than politically[63]. It was He who tried his butt off to put political labels on Liang’s head. Therefore, He was not just to “criticize the revivalism in Liang Sicheng’s architectural designs,” as Fang wrote. The very fact that He would rather “disobey organization and violate discipline” to have his article published reveals unequivocally He’s malicious intention. In short, He tried to destroy Liang, most likely for the purpose of seeking for his own political gain.

Thirdly, any people with basic Chinese proficiency would realize that when He told his story in 1990 (the memoir was written in 1990, but the book containing the memoir was published in 1999), he was presenting it as one of his achievements, he was proud of what he did, and he showed no sign of remorse. Also, He showed sincere regret that his buddy Zha Ruqiang’s “most persuasive” article wasn’t published at the time. Therefore, He’s revelation of the story was not a repentant confession, as Fang implied; rather, it was a political demonstration.

Fourthly, although Liang Sicheng’s death was not caused by He’s article directly, He’s article nonetheless contributed to Liang’s death indirectly. Not to mention Liang’s “cut off flesh” and “peel off skin” metaphors, just think about his reaction after reading the critical articles which had even not been published yet: the pressure was so huge that caused his mental collapse immediately. Therefore, He’s published article was nothing less than a fatal blow to Liang. The fact is, when He and Yu’s gangsters were swarming upon Liang, trying to beat him up, Liang was suffering from a sequela from an auto accident occurred in 1920s, and newly acquired tuberculosis, and his beloved wife Lin Huiyin (林徽因, 1904-1955) was dying in a hospital[64]. He’s article was definitely a mental torment to Liang, and it could only aggravate Liang’s physical suffering. As a matter of fact, even though Liang’s body was still warm in 1972, 17 years after He’s criticism, his heart was deadly cold long before his physical death:

“It was in 1972 when Mr. Liang passed away in loneliness. However, as a scholar, a social activist, he had not spoken long before his death: the last article in the last volume of Liang Sicheng’s Works was written in July 1964.”[65]

Therefore, Fang needs to explain how He’s evildoing could be more related to Liang’s death, does he believe that as long as He didn’t use a knife to cut a person’s throat, he would never be responsible for that person’s death?


A golden couple
Liang Sicheng and his wife Lin Huiyin in 1931.Ms. Lin was the designer of PRC’s national emblem.


Finally, it was a shameless lie when Fang said that Wang Jun didn’t mention He Zuoxiu in his highly acclaimed book, Beijing Record. The fact is, on pages 261-262 of his book, Wang clearly cited two sentences from He’s noxious article as an example of the absurd criticisms against Liang at the time (see images below).


Condemned explicitly
Upper: In his book Beijing Record, published in 2003, pages 261-262, Mr. Wang June cited He’s article as an example of criticisms against Liang Sicheng in 1950s.
Lower: The English translation of Wang’s book was published in 2011, and the Chinese portion showed in the upper panel was faithfully translated on page 361[66].


To slap Fang’s face further, Mr. Wang cited He’s article again in an article published in 2006[67].

The fact is, as early as in 1999, 4 years before the publication of Mr. Wang’s book, and in the same year when He’s memoir made public, He’s anti-Liang article was cited in a book as the representative of political persecution and public lynching of Liang Sicheng[68]. Fang was either completely blind or a liar when he implied that He’s article was neither well-known nor important.

(4) Fang Zhouzi Came to He’s Defense, by Fighting

The fact is, Fang’s sophistry even couldn’t fool his own followers. As soon as Fang published his defense statement on behalf of He on his New Threads, someone posted He’s On Some of Liang Sicheng’s Erroneous Opinions about Architecture on the forum of the website, with the following comment:

“The following is a few excerpts [of He’s article]. Now let’s take a look at Academician He Zuoxiu’s ‘big character poster,’ see how many sentences in it are defensible? The paragraph about Beijing city wall had nothing to do with the demolition of the city wall? According to He Zuoxiu’s opinion, even the entire Forbidden City should be demolished: it affects traffic!”[69]

Fang responded almost immediately:

“[He] said that ancient city wall and the Forbidden City have shortcomings, and obstructing traffic now, and you think he was suggesting demolishing city wall and the Forbidden City entirely? And you want He to take responsibility? Is this your level of logical reasoning? In fact even Liang Sicheng admitted that Beijing city wall obstructing traffic, do you think he was also suggesting demolishing city wall entirely? If you have time, why don’t you read some histories about the controversy over the demolition of the city wall? Not to mention that the article was written in 1955, even if it were written today, it is not completely nonsense, for example, his opposition to big roof. Didn’t Chen Xitong in the past make people grumbling when he built big roof extensively in the name of national style?”[70]

Someone replied:

“It could be seen from He’s article that he agreed with the demolition of the city wall. The negative terms [he used] such as stubborn, mistake proposition, and bankruptcy are more than enough to show the author’s position. Liang was not happy with demolition of the gate towers, He refuted vigorously. If the opposition to the opinions against the demolition of the old city wall doesn’t constitute the advocacy for the demolition of the old city wall, then there must be something wrong with the language and logic I have learned. It has always been our Party’s way of doing things by organizing criticism teams, criticizing somebody orally and literarily from a political perspective, based on the tone set by the upper level, and launching group attacks. It has absolutely nothing in common with normal academic criticism, because the two parties are not on an equal footing. He was a member of the criticism team, and he worked really hard. Maybe He’s subjective wish was for the public, and probably his rank was not high enough to take responsibility, however, I don’t believe it is honorable to participate in the great criticisms organized by your superiors.”[71]

Obviously Fang knew he was on the evil’s side, and he knew his hidden evilness was being seen through, so he softened his tone:

“Agreeing with demolition of the gate towers doesn’t mean agreeing with demolition of the city wall; agreeing with demolition of the city wall is not villainy. Maybe the majority of Beijingers agreed with demolition of the city wall. Everything was in full swing during the Great Leap Forward era. Shouldn’t the people who were physically involved in removing the bricks of the wall deserve more blames? He was a young cadre in the Propaganda Department, and it was his job to write critical articles when ordered to do so. If it was not honorable, then how many Chinese were honorable at that time? Isn’t it absurd that it made Cadre He looked like the chief culprit of the city wall’s demolition, and even responsible for Liang Sicheng’s death? It is very easy to say who was right and who was wrong 50 years after the thing occurred.”[72]

Another person commented:

“Old He has always been following [the leaders] closely in political perspective. The issue was not so much an academic dispute, rather, it was a political showdown. The decision had already been made by the leaders before the ‘dispute,’ so Liang was destined to lose. Obviously, the most intelligent choice at the time was to build a ‘new Beijing’ in a different location.”[73]

Fang’s response:

“When He opposed pseudoscience in the 1980s against the pressure of the upper level, you tell me whose politics he was following?”[74]

The fact is, He’s anti-pseudoscience career started in 1995, right after CCP Central Committee and the State Council issued the Several Opinions on Strengthening the Work of Science and Technology Popularization in December 1994. There is absolutely no evidence showing that He had opposed pseudoscience in 1980s. Therefore Fang resort to lying, again, after he failed to fight off those who criticized He.

On that day, Feb. 23, 2005, in a time span of 15 hours, including a 6-hour break, Fang posted 33 messages on his forum, and all the messages had only one theme: defending He[75]. It probably was the most clustered and focused posting in Fang’s entire life.

Doesn’t it make people wonder why Fang would want to defend such a public enemy?

“A (Fake) Pioneer of Hydrogen Bomb Theory in China”

1. Back to Science, Politically

In 1955, China launched its atomic bomb project, with the promised help from the Soviet Union, and Mr. He was transferred to Chinese Academy of Sciences in late 1956 to supposedly participate in the project. About He’s transfer from the Propaganda Department to the nuclear weapons program, the following story was recently told:

“In 1955, the central authority decided to make atomic bomb, Professor Qian Sanqiang was ordered to organize the Atomic Energy Institute. It was a highly secret and advanced defense project, the scientists involved should be qualified both technically and politically. Qian Sanqiang thought of his student He Zuoxiu, and he asked Hu Qiaomu for He’s transfer. At that time, He Zuoxiu had already worked in the Science Division of the Propaganda Department for 5 and half years on Party affairs. To him, going back to scientific research was extremely difficult. ‘Fortunately, my scientific and technological foundation was not bad. The most important thing was that I had worked in the Propaganda Department, having very good relationship with the top scientists. Therefore, whenever I had some questions to ask, the seniors like Peng Huanwu, Yu Min, and Deng Jiaxian would be willing to teach me unreservedly. I wasn’t too stupid to learn either.’”[76]

There is another side of story about He’s moving back to science. According to Gong Yuzhi, He’s classmate at Tsinghua and comrade in the Propaganda Department, the first two directors of the Science Division in the Propaganda Department was Zhao Feng (赵沨) and Qin Chuan (秦川), respectively. Zhao was a musician, and Qin was interested in being a writer, therefore neither one of them was interested in the job very much. He Zuoxiu was not very happy with Qin either. It seemed that He had a remote chance to be promoted to the division head, but after Yu’s appointment as the third director, He’s chance disappeared completely[77]. In 1956, the CCP Central Committee issued a call for "Marching to Science," and He responded the call by requesting the transfer[78].

Genealogically speaking, He did have a relationship with Qian Sanqing, He’s nominal boss in the Atomic Energy Institute. Qian and Yu Guangyuan were classmates at Tsinghua University in 1930s. In 1937, Frédéric Joliot-Curie was planning to admit a graduate student from China through the fund provided by Commission Mixte des Oeuvres Franco-Chinoises. Both Yu and Qian were very hopeful, but since Yu had determined to devote his life to revolution, so he gave up the chance. Qian received the scholarship eventually. Before leaving China for France, Qian asked Yu to write something in his souvenir album, and the following is what Yu wrote, according Yu’s recollection made about 70 years later:

“I am now participating in the fight against imperialism and feudalism to build a democratic country in which the working people are the masters. After the success of the revolution, there will be need for construction. You are going to study abroad, after you finishing your study, you will be able to serve such a country, and we will collaborate at that time.”[79]


Classmates
The graduating class of physics at Tsinghua University in 1936. Qian Sanqiang (first left in back) would become China’s Oppenheimer; He Zehui (second right in front) would became Qian’s wife in 1946 and an academician of CAS in 1980. Yu Guangyuan (first right, front), of course, would become the ideological Czar in China’s science community. (Source: Yu Guangyuan. My Chronicle Stories: 1935-1939.)


Qian received his doctorate in 1940, and won French Academy’s Henry de Parville Award for Physics in 1946[80]. He returned to China in 1948, taught at Tsinghua University briefly, and soon involved himself in the building of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), starting in 1949. In 1953, Qian led a CAS delegation with 26 members, many of them were top scientists and scholars in China at the time, to visit the Soviet Union, and He Zuoxiu, as a representative from the Propaganda Department, was a member of the delegation, and apparently a member of the delegation’s Party Branch. After the visit, the branch issued an evaluation of Qian:

“Going abroad this time, [Qian’s] performance was generally very good, having passion for work, working hard at learning the Soviet Union’s experience. [He] treated his delegation leader’s duty also seriously, accepting and respecting the suggestions and the leadership of the Party.”[81]

It is very likely that because of this, as well as many other things, Qian had said that He Zuoxiu was his boss[21]. In 1954, Qian became a CCP member, “introduced” by Yu Guangyuan and Zhang Jiafu (张稼夫, 1903-1991), the Party chief at CAS[82], but He claimed that it was he who “developed” Qian into the Party[21].

According to He, before the transfer, he had tried to learn modern physics from Dr. Peng Huanwu (彭桓武, 1915-2007), the founding father of quantum physics in China. However, it seemed that Dr. Peng was not interested in teaching him very much: he first arranged He to learn calculus from Deng Jiaxian (邓稼先, 1924-1986), which resulted in a publication in March 1956 in Acta Physica Sinica[83]. He was very humble about the publication: “I was only learning, really had no contribution!”[84]

After being transferred to CAS, He learned from Dr. Peng directly for about a half year. The learning was conducted this way: Peng asked He to read scientific literatures, and report his findings, opinions, comments to him weekly. According to He, Peng stopped his many attempts to conduct original research[85]. Later, Peng was more involved in the research on the atomic bomb, so he arranged Dr. Zhu Hongyuan (Tzu Hung-yuan, 朱洪元, 1917-1992) to direct He’s study. Zhu received his Ph. D. from the University of Manchester in 1948, and he would become the principle investigator in building the straton model of hadrons in mid 1960s.

Apparently based on the mathematical skills he just acquired from these scientists, He made his first original academic achievement after the transfer to CAS by publishing a series of 3 papers in Acta Mechanica Sinica. The general title of the 3 papers was The Mathematical Analyses of Marxist Reproduction Theory[86]. They were the only papers about Marxism in the first two volumes of the journal.

In late 1958 or early1959, He was sent to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) at Dubna in the Soviet Union to study nuclear physics. JINR was built in 1956 by the joint efforts from the socialist countries. China was responsible for one fifth, or one third, of its operating budget[87]. More than one thousand Chinese scientists and technicians were trained there in a period of ten years. One of the biggest discoveries in JINR history, antisigma-minus hyperon, was made by a team led by Dr. Wang Ganchang (王淦昌, 1907-1998) in 1959. It was said that Dr. Wang worked extremely hard: his Chinese assistants dared not to take a break even during the weekends, and they could only go to Moscow, which is less than 100 miles away from Dubna, on special occasions, such as the World Festival of Youth and Students in 1957[88].

He Zuoxiu, on the other hand, went to Moscow every weekend to visit his girlfriend Qing Chengrui (庆承瑞), who was studying at Moscow University[89]. As a matter of fact, He had tried at least once to use a fake ID to get into Qing’s dormitory[90]. Therefore, even though He claimed that he “generated 10 high quality papers” during the two-year period in Dubna[91], I could not find in which journals these papers were published, or even what they were about.


He Zuoxiu’s family in 1968
(Source: [www.chinatoday.com.cn])


2. A Renowned Hydrogen Bomb Expert?

Nonetheless, He did do a remarkable thing while in the Soviet Union. Starting from late 1950s, the relationship between China and the Soviet Union began deteriorating. In June 1959, the atomic energy assistance agreement between the two countries was suspended by the Soviet Union unilaterally, and Chinese leaders soon decided to build the atomic bomb independently. In early 1960, He Zuoxiu, Zhou Guangzhao (周光召, 1929- ), and Lü Min, three members of the CCP Branch in Dubna, wrote a letter to Chinese government, saying that they were willing to go back to China to participate in “practical work,” meaning the atomic bomb project. According to He, the letter was drafted by him[92], which was actually handed to Qian Sanqiang while he was in Moscow in March 1960[93].

【FOR THE REST, PLEASE READ THE PDF FILE.




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Open Letter to Nature: Part XXXII: The Fangangsters (II): He Zuoxiu, a Shameless Party Man (I) (4989 查看) 附件

亦明 November 15, 2013 07:33PM

Part XXXIII: The Fangangsters (III): Shu-Kun Lin and His Predatory MDPI Journals (18540 查看) 附件

亦明 January 19, 2014 07:24PM

Part XXXIV: The Fangangsters (IV): He Zuoxiu, a Shameless Party Man (II) (3950 查看) 附件

亦明 February 02, 2014 06:01PM

Part XXXV: The Fangangsters (V): He Zuoxiu, a Shameless Party Man (III) (3653 查看) 附件

亦明 February 19, 2014 01:54PM

Part XXXVI: The Fangangsters (VI): Shu-Kun Lin and His Predatory MDPI Journals (II) (4081 查看) 附件

亦明 February 26, 2014 06:32PM

Part XXXVII: The Fangangsters (VII): Shu-Kun Lin and His Predatory MDPI Journals (III) (6847 查看)

亦明 March 04, 2014 07:05PM

Part XXXVIII: The Fangangsters (VIII): Shu-Kun Lin and His Predatory MDPI Journals (IV) (4980 查看) 附件

亦明 March 16, 2014 02:35PM



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