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给《新华每日电讯》的第五封公开信 (5409 查看)
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日期: November 30, 2012 08:20PM

《新华每日电讯》继续充当贼窟黑店──给《新华每日电讯》的第五封公开信



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2012年11月30日,以老偷巨骗闻名于世的方舟子在其独家赃品销售店《新华每日电讯》上发表《杰斐逊和赫明斯》一文。不用猜,无才无德无学无识无耻无赖的中国“阿莫袭夫”(Imathieaf)方舟子肯定又是剿袭了某人的文章。果然,它抄自英文维基百科“杰斐逊和赫明斯争论”(Jefferson–Hemings controversy)。简言之,方舟子的《杰斐逊和赫明斯》共约两千字,其中大约80%的文字抄自维基百科的这个辞条,另有大约一百字来自该辞条提供的参考文献。全文比较见本文附录。


方舟子《杰斐逊和赫明斯》一文大约85%抄自维基百科的一篇文章
黑框内文字来自抄袭


其实,方老偷偷东西并不稀奇,稀奇的是他这个“巨骗”每次行骗都能搞出新的笑点。本来,方舟子以“科普作家”的身份在《新华每日电讯》上卖文,应该炒卖科学才是。可是,这个假冒伪劣美国博士,即使照抄科学,也能把真科学抄成伪科学。所以,他最近又改行以炒卖美国总统来骗取稿费,其中蜻蜓点水般地点缀着几行“科学”。而这篇《杰斐逊和赫明斯》,全文只有四段话、约七百余字涉及到科学的皮毛,并且它们全部来自维基百科的“科普”。但即便如此,这个“在美国生活时养成了(抄袭)习惯”的“留美十三年的美国博士”、自称“拿了分子遗传学研究方向的生物化学博士、做过十来年分子遗传学前沿研究、至今虽然不再从事具体研究但因为工作需要几乎每天都还在阅读分子生物学的最新论文的人”,也能出错。看看方科普作家是怎么科唬的:

“研究人员采用一个变通方法,找到了杰斐逊叔叔的5个男性后裔,通过分析他们的Y染色体的DNA序列,发现都有一段在欧洲人后裔中罕见的特殊序列,称为T单倍型组,可作为杰斐逊家族男人的序列特征。”

实际上,“T单倍型组”(T haplogroup)根本就不是什么“一段……特殊序列”,而是一种“指纹特征”。原来,英国科学家在1998年使用DNA指纹技术来确定杰弗逊与其女奴赫明斯后裔的亲缘关系。具体地说,就是要通过对Y染色体不同位点进行DNA扩增,然后比较个体之间的异同。一般来说,DNA指纹分析所根据的标记(DNA片段)越多,得出的结果越可靠。并且,标记之间,也需要具有一定的物理距离。这组科学家在Y染色体上进行了19个标记物的分析,它们之间的距离,至少有两千万个碱基(~20 Mb,见下图DYS393与DYS392)的距离。这种跨越了大半个染色体的DNA,还能够算是“一段”吗?请问方博士,“研究人员”是怎么“分析”这“段”“特殊序列”的啊?


Y染色体上短串联重复序列标记物(Y-STR)的位置
注:DYS393与DYS392是英国科学家使用的标记物中的两个。


方分子遗传学家不仅对分子遗传学懵懵懂懂,他对美国历史也是迷迷糊糊。比如,他说杰弗逊“死时留下遗嘱,卖掉部分土地和黑奴还债。”事实是,杰弗逊死时留下的遗嘱,除了给外孙留下的财产之外,将全部财产用于偿还债务(I subject all my other property to the payment of my debts in the first place),所以他的女儿后来才会靠救济生活。

再如,方舟子说:“杰斐逊很早就过着鳏居生活,玛莎死时他还不到40岁,发誓不再续弦”。事实是,玛莎去世前,曾要求杰弗逊不要续弦,以免继母虐待孩子。杰弗逊不过就是在当时做出了承诺(promise)而已。而按照方舟子,好像在玛莎死后杰弗逊独立自主地“发誓不再续弦”似的。

再如,方舟子在文章中至少三次说“杰斐逊一直反对黑白通婚”,但现在有据可查的相关言论也不过就是杰弗逊在1814年71岁时写的这么几个字:

"The amalgamation of whites with blacks produces a degradation to which no lover of his country, no lover of excellence in the human character, can innocently consent." (E. M. Halliday. Understanding Thomas Jefferson. HarperCollins 2002. p.153)

而在1781年,38岁的杰弗逊还曾说过这样的话:

"The improvement of the blacks in body and mind, in the first instance of their mixture with the whites, has been observed by every one, and proves that their inferiority is not the effect merely of their condition in life." (同上,p.151)

方英语大师,能不能把这两段话翻译翻译?

如果说假冒伪劣方分子遗传学家不懂分子遗传学,假冒伪劣方美国通不通美国历史还情有可原的话,那么这个说着一口字正腔圆福建云霄英语的“将马到死”奖获得者翻译英语也能出错,就让人难以原谅。原来,根据方舟子照抄的维基百科辞条,“杰斐逊和赫明斯”的“不正当关系”一直保持了近40年(lasted nearly four decades),或38年(Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years),但是,方舟子却说:

“不过他显然和赫明斯相处得不错,保持关系达13年之久,65岁时还生了个儿子。”

这句话是怎么来的呢?原来,这篇文章中,有这样一句话:

“In 1968 the historian Winthrop Jordan noted that Jefferson was at Monticello "nine months prior to each birth" of Hemings' children, during a 13-year period when he was often away for months at a time”(1968年,历史学家乔丹发现在一段13年的时间中,杰弗逊经常长期在外,但在赫明斯每次生产之前的九个月,杰弗逊都在蒙蒂切罗。)

方舟子的不幸,在于他先天智力不足,后天缺乏家教,所以落到了如今连当贼人都当不好的地步。不过,俗话说,老天爷饿不死瞎眼的雀儿。方舟子的幸运就是,他有一个不知羞耻的新华社在他的背后给他撑腰。


附录:方舟子《杰斐逊和赫明斯》一文抄袭剽窃对比

【方文全文照录,抄自英文部分附上原文原文。如不注明,英文原文来自维基百科Jefferson–Hemings controversy辞条。该辞条由多人撰写,重复之处很多,所以笔者也尽量照录。】

杰斐逊和赫明斯

方舟子 (科普作家)



有一个“著名经济学家”发微博称美国第三位总统托马斯•杰斐逊是“第一个死于贫困的美国总统”,听了让人以为杰斐逊死前饥寒交迫。

事实上杰斐逊至死都是个富裕的庄园主,有大量的财产、土地和黑奴,只不过同时也负了很多债。

所以他死时留下遗嘱,卖掉部分土地和黑奴还债。

杰斐逊的债务相当一部分是从他的丈人约翰•威尔斯那里继承来的,不过他也没有什么可抱怨的,因为他同时也继承了11000英亩的土地和135名黑奴。
In 1773, the year after Jefferson married the young widow Martha Wayles Skelton, her father died. She and Jefferson inherited his estate, including 11,000 acres, 135 slaves, and £4,000 of debt.

其中有个女奴叫萨利•赫明斯,是威尔斯和一名有一半白人血统的黑奴贝蒂•赫明斯的私生女(威尔斯和贝蒂生了6个子女,莎莉是最小的一个),也就是说,赫明斯是杰斐逊妻子玛莎的同父异母姐妹。
Sally Hemings was three-fourths white and is believed to be a half-sister to Jefferson's late wife, as her father was likely John Wayles. As a widower, Wayles had six children by his 12-year liaison with his mulatto slave Betty Hemings; the youngest was Sally.

Sally Hemings was three-quarters white, described as "mostly white" and "decidedly attractive", and was the half sister of Jefferson's beloved wife.

有四分之三白人血统的赫明斯育有6个子女,4个活到成年,其中有2个成年时在杰斐逊的允许下“逃走”,剩下的2个杰斐逊遗嘱让他们自由。他们有八分之七白人血统,根据当时的法律属于白人,自由后也融入了白人社会。杰斐逊的遗嘱同时还让赫明斯的3个亲戚自由。赫明斯是杰斐逊的黑奴中唯一一家全部获得自由的。
Hemings' children were seven-eighths European in ancestry and legally white according to Virginia law of the time. Of the four who survived to adulthood: William Beverley, Harriet Hemings, Madison Hemings and Eston Hemings, all but Madison eventually identified as white and lived as adults in white communities.

Since 1998 and the DNA study, most historians have accepted that the widower Jefferson had a long intimate relationship with Hemings, and fathered six children with her, four of whom survived to adulthood.

He allowed Beverley (male) and Harriet to "escape" in 1822 at ages 23 and 21, although Jefferson was already struggling financially and would be $100,000 in debt at his death.[28]

In his 1826 will, Jefferson freed the younger brothers Madison and Eston Hemings, who were approaching the age of 21.


For instance, Madison Hemings' account was supported by the fact that Jefferson freed all of Sally Hemings' children, although he was deeply in debt. Hers was the only family whose members were all freed; Sally's daughter Harriet was the only female slave he ever freed.[18]

Most importantly, Jefferson freed all the Hemings children; theirs was the only slave family to all go free from Monticello, they were the only slaves freed as they came of age, and Harriet Hemings was the only female slave he ever freed.[29]

Jefferson also freed three older males related to Sally Hemings; they had each served him for decades.

另外的130名黑奴被卖掉了还债。
In 1827 the remaining 130 slaves at Monticello were sold to pay the debts of Jefferson's estate.

杰斐逊为何如此特殊对待赫明斯一家?一直有传言称杰斐逊长期与赫明斯保持不正当关系,赫明斯其实是杰斐逊的小妾,她的6个子女都是和杰斐逊生的。杰斐逊很早就过着鳏居生活,玛莎死时他还不到40岁,发誓不再续弦,如果此后有情人倒也是人之常情。但与黑奴私通、生子在当时却是很不光彩的一件事,何况杰斐逊一直反对白人与黑人通婚。

杰斐逊本人从未对此有过公开回应。
Jefferson made no public comment on the matter,

但到杰斐逊庄园拜访的客人会注意到,赫明斯的子女和杰斐逊长得很像。
"she [Hemings] had children which resembled Mr. Jefferson so closely that it was plain that they had his blood in their veins.... He [Randolph] said in one instance, a gentleman dining with Mr. Jefferson, looked so startled as he raised his eyes from the latter to the servant behind him, that his discovery of the resemblance was perfectly obvious to all."[11]

赫明斯的后人一直声称他们是杰斐逊的后代,杰斐逊的后人则予以否认。

杰斐逊的女儿举出一个有力反证:在赫明斯生某个子女时,杰斐逊已离家15个月,不可能是父亲。
According to an 1868 letter by Jefferson biographer Henry Randall to the historian James Parton, Jefferson's grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, said that Jefferson's daughter, Martha, stated on her deathbed, that Jefferson had been away from Monticello for 15 months before one of Hemings' children was born, so could not be the father.

Martha Randolph, Jefferson's daughter, had made a deathbed claim that Jefferson was away for a 15-month period during which one of the Hemings' children was conceived.

怎么解释赫明斯的子女和杰斐逊长得很像呢?那得把父亲算到杰斐逊的某个亲戚头上。

杰斐逊的外孙说此人是杰斐逊的外甥彼特•卡尔,而杰斐逊的外孙女则说是彼特的兄弟山缪尔。
Jefferson's grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, told a historian in the 1850s that the late Peter Carr, a nephew of Jefferson's, had fathered Hemings' children.

Randolph then told Randall that the late Peter Carr, Jefferson's nephew and a married man at the time, had fathered Hemings' children, as explanation for the 'startling' close resemblance that every visitor to Monticello could see.

In the 1970s, as part of his six-volume biography of Jefferson, Malone was the first to publish a letter by Ellen Randolph Coolidge, Randolph's sister, who claimed the late Samuel Carr (also a married man), rather than his brother Peter, had fathered Hemings' children.

长期以来美国历史学界都采纳杰斐逊家人的说法。
Historians generally asserted this denial for nearly 180 years.

他们相信杰斐逊的道德品质,一个谴责白人与黑人通婚的政治家怎么可能自己去和黑奴私通呢?
In addition, they determined he would not have had such a relationship because of his expressed antipathy to blacks and miscegenation in his writings, combined with his perceived moral character.[18]


1953年杰斐逊庄园的记录被重新发现并出版,它详细记载了杰斐逊庄园每个黑奴的生日、死亡日期、销售情况。
In 1953 Jefferson's Farm Book was published, after having been rediscovered. Its records of slave births, deaths, purchases and sales provided researchers with considerable data about the lives of slaves at Monticello.

1968年,有历史学家根据这一记载发现,杰斐逊的女儿不是说假话就是记错了,虽然杰斐逊长时间离家在外,但赫明斯在生每个子女时,杰斐逊离家的时间从未超过9个月,杰斐逊有可能是所有这些子女的父亲。
In 1968 the historian Winthrop Jordan noted that Jefferson was at Monticello "nine months prior to each birth" of Hemings' children, during a 13-year period when he was often away for months at a time.[19] Fawn McKay Brodie also used this information in her biography of Jefferson, which contributed to her conclusion that he had fathered Hemings' children.[20] The source for the birth dates of the children is Jefferson's Farm Book.

美国历史学界争议又起。

进入上世纪90年代后,有可能通过比较基因序列来确定两个人的亲缘关系,分子遗传学家也对这个问题感兴趣,想要看看杰斐逊的后人和赫明斯的后人是否享有某段少见基因片段,以此可以知道他们是否是亲戚。
Researchers tested Y-chromosomal DNA from living male claimed descendants of Jefferson and Hemings.

英国莱斯特大学研究人员想到要比较Y染色体序列。
In 1998 Dr. Eugene Foster with researchers at the University of Leicester tested the Y-DNA of male descendants of the Jefferson, Carr and Eston Hemings lines in an attempt to determine whether Thomas Jefferson or one of the Carrs had fathered Sally Hemings' children.

Y染色体是决定一个人的男性性别的性染色体,只由男人传给儿子,而且由于Y染色体只有一条,遗传时不发生重组,所以和其他染色体不同,Y染色体的遗传非常稳定,基本不变,同一个家族的男人的Y染色体序列都会相当一致。
Because most of the Y chromosome is passed unchanged from father to son, apart from occasional mutations, DNA analysis of the Y chromosome can reveal whether or not individuals are likely to be male-line relatives. (Foster, EA, et al. (1998). "Jefferson fathered slave's last child". Nature 396: 27–28.)

但是杰斐逊和玛莎只有女儿活到成年。
Jefferson had no acknowledged male descendant

杰斐逊的后人又不同意开棺从杰斐逊遗骨中提取DNA。
Wayles-Jefferson descendants declined to have Thomas Jefferson's remains disturbed.[38]

研究人员采用一个变通方法,找到了杰斐逊叔叔的5个男性后裔,通过分析他们的Y染色体的DNA序列,发现都有一段在欧洲人后裔中罕见的特殊序列,称为T单倍型组,可作为杰斐逊家族男人的序列特征。
Thomas Jefferson did not have a surviving son from his marriage to Martha Wayles Skelton and thus did not have an acknowledged direct male descendant as a positive control. The team located male-line descendants of Thomas Jefferson's paternal uncle, Field Jefferson, who had the same Y-chromosomal DNA. Five such descendants (J41, J42, J47, J49, and J50) were located and their DNA was analyzed.

The five descendants of Field Jefferson (which are proxies for Thomas Jefferson) have nearly identical Y-chromosome DNA alleles, except for a single difference at J50.

赫明斯有三个儿子活到了成年,其中一个没有男性后代,一个后代不详,还有一个——最年轻的儿子——则至今还能找到一个男性后裔。
The team located a male-line descendant of Sally Hemings' youngest son Eston Hemings Jefferson for genealogical DNA testing, as the other sons were not known to have direct male-line descendants.[33]

研究人员分析了他的Y染色体,发现他的确有那段特殊序列。

研究人员同时分析了另一个嫌疑对象卡尔家族的3个男性后裔的Y染色体,发现他们共享一段特殊的序列,但是没有那段杰斐逊家族的特殊序列。
Three Carr male descendants of Peter and Samuel Carr, the nephews in question, were tested. The results showed a consensus Carr haplotype for the male line. It was conclusively different from that of the Hemings descendant and the Jefferson male line. Foster said, "The simplest and most probable explanations for our molecular findings are that Thomas Jefferson, rather than one of the Carr brothers, was the father of Eston Hemings Jefferson. . ."[40]

Because of mid-19th c. family testimony by Jefferson's grandchildren that one of his nephews, Peter or Samuel Carr, was the biological father of Hemings' children, historians had long asserted this. To test this tradition, researchers tested three male-line descendants (C27, C29, and C31) of Samuel and Peter Carr.[33]

The three Carr descendants studied in the DNA analysis have "closely related haplotypes, with one (C29) showing a single microsatellite unit difference at one locus and a single MSY1 unit difference", probably due to mutation. Their consensus haplotype "differs substantially from the Jefferson family haplotype, even showing a biallelic marker difference, and thus the two families are readily distinguished."[42] They are distinctly different from the Hemings and Woodson descendants. Thus, the Carrs were disproved as the ancestor of the Eston Hemings descendant, and the focus returned to Thomas Jefferson, as other historic evidence supported his paternity.

这个结果可以确定卡尔兄弟不可能是赫明斯子女的父亲,但是却无法肯定杰斐逊就是父亲,因为杰斐逊的兄弟和父亲这一支的亲戚也都有那段特殊序列(后来发现英国姓杰斐逊的人也有这段序列),都有嫌疑。
While another Jefferson male from his line would have had the same DNA as Thomas Jefferson, no other candidate from his male line had ever been identified as a possible father during the nearly 200 years of the historic controversy.

Because the Jefferson male line was found to be the K2 haplogroup (since 2008 referred to as haplogroup T (Y-DNA)), relatively rare in Europe, researchers in 2007 did additional studies to determine if it was represented among other Jefferson-surname males in England. As it was found among other Jefferson males unrelated to Jefferson's family, they concluded that the haplotype had likely become "indigenous" to England after some random, ancient migration.

The descendant of Eston Hemings has the same set of Y-chromosome DNA alleles as the Jefferson male line (simply, he "carries the Jefferson family haplotype."[42]). This supports the claim that Thomas Jefferson could have been the father of Eston Hemings. It is impossible to prove absolutely that no other Jefferson fathered the child. (1) That would be proving a negative, and (2) any male who had the same Y-chromosome as Thomas Jefferson (other descendants of a common male ancestor) could have been the father, provided that this person had relations with Sally Hemings nine months before the birth of Eston Hemings. But, there is no historical evidence that Hemings had more than one partner.

这个结果在1998年公布后,力主杰斐逊清白的人就是这么为杰斐逊辩护的,他们改口说杰斐逊的弟弟才是赫明斯子女的父亲,虽然记录表明杰斐逊的弟弟其实不常上杰斐逊家。
The Scholars Commission Report (2001) and other scholars argue against Jefferson's paternity; they generally favor his younger brother Randolph Jefferson as a candidate as father of Hemings' children, although he was never seriously proposed before the results of the DNA study.

但是在历史上,嫌疑人只有两个,卡尔和杰斐逊,而既然卡尔被Y染色体的证据排除了,Y染色体的证据又支持杰斐逊是父亲的结论,再结合其他方面的证据,杰斐逊是赫明斯子女的父亲的结论就被普遍认可了。
The study team acknowledged the historical body of evidence and said that the simplest explanation was that Thomas Jefferson was most likely the father. For instance, he was documented at Monticello at the time of each of Sally Heming's conceptions, and she never conceived when he was not there. Other circumstantial evidence supports his paternity (see historiography discussion above).

杰斐逊一直反对黑白通婚,认为白人和黑人和谐相处是不可能的。

不过他显然和赫明斯相处得不错,保持关系达13年之久,65岁时还生了个儿子。
In 1968 the historian Winthrop Jordan noted that Jefferson was at Monticello "nine months prior to each birth" of Hemings' children, during a 13-year period when he was often away for months at a time.[19]

He is believed to have had a relationship with Sally Hemings that lasted nearly four decades, until his death, and six children by her.

This confirmed the body of historical evidence, and most historians believe that Jefferson had a long-term intimate liaison with Hemings for 38 years, and fathered her six children of record, four of whom lived to adulthood.

这种关系在当时是很常见的,杰斐逊的丈人鳏居后也与赫明斯的母亲长期保持不正当关系。
As a widower, Wayles had six children by his 12-year liaison with his mulatto slave Betty Hemings; the youngest was Sally. As the historians Philip D. Morgan and Joshua D. Rothman have noted, this was one of numerous interracial relationships in the Wayles-Hemings-Jefferson families, which were also common in Virginia and the Upper South.

赫明斯是杰斐逊的女奴,是他的财产,在这种男女关系中也许难有爱情。在玛莎死后,杰斐逊倒是另有真爱,他在巴黎当大使期间结识的一个已婚英国女人玛丽亚•科斯维,那是另一个与科学无关的“头脑对心灵”的故事了。

              



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