方舟子抄袭案例汇总(亦明)- 中国学术评价网
 
方舟子在2009年抄袭美国《科学》杂志(by idear) (4561 查看)
发布: 亦明
日期: January 13, 2011 06:47AM

《苍蝇也爱打架》:又一个抄袭案例



方舟子写的“苍蝇也爱打架”一文来自《大象为什么不长毛 》,该书 气势磅礴,销量骇人!

《Fruit Fly Fight Club》来自www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 315 12 JANUARY 2007

下面对照相应的段落,让大家欣赏一下。
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    苍蝇也爱打架

  国内一些“专家”,在国外一些“专家”的指导下,起草了一份《动物保护法(专家建议稿)》,涵盖范围之广,
规定之详细,大概都走在了世界前列。这里说的动物保护,不是指的保护濒危动物,而是指的保护一般动物不受虐待,
其实是指“动物福利”。国外涉及动物福利时,往往还要区分一下温血动物和冷血动物,比如动物实验如果用到温血
动物(哺乳类和鸟类),会受到某些限制。如果连冷血动物也要“保护”,连奥巴马总统在镜头前拍死一只苍蝇也要
指责,就被当成了笑话。

  但是,这个“专家建议稿”是要对动物一视同仁,明文规定所要保护的动物包括腔肠动物、软体动物、昆虫、
哺乳动物等等一切动物。这么一来,就未免让人觉得管得太宽了。比如,它规定“禁止开展动物争斗的实验”,
那恐怕连小孩儿玩蚂蚁打架游戏也是犯法的了。

  科学家开展动物争斗的实验,当然不是为了好玩,更不是出于虐待动物的阴暗心理,而是为了弄清楚影响动物争斗
的因素。从腔肠动物到哺乳动物,几乎所有的动物都会为了争夺食物、配偶、领地而争斗,人类也不例外。因此,研究
争斗行为是为了帮助解决人类社会的某些问题。我不知道世界上还有哪个国家准备禁止开展动物争斗的实验,动物争斗
实验是当前动物学研究的一个热点。哈佛医学院克拉维兹实验室就是专门做果蝇争斗实验的,被戏称为“果蝇搏击俱乐部”。
北京大学饶毅实验室现在也建立了类似的俱乐部,以后,那里也许就有受处罚、取缔之虞。

  果蝇是一种小型的苍蝇,身长大约只有普通家蝇的一半。一般人对果蝇的印象,也就是它们会被腐烂的水果吸引来
翩翩飞舞,很难想象它们还会互相打架。如果果蝇不是很偶然地成了被研究得最为透彻的实验动物之一,大概也不会有人
注意到它们还很好斗。上世纪初,美国遗传学家摩尔根要研究遗传学问题,没能申请到培养哺乳动物的经费,改养起了果蝇,
从此让果蝇成了遗传学研究的重要工具。1915年,摩尔根的学生斯特提万特(Alfred Sturtevant)在养果蝇时首次注意到,
让两只雄蝇去追求同一只雌蝇,它们会打起来:它们张开翅膀互相追逐,并用头相撞,很快会有一只认输逃走。

以后又有人陆续抓果蝇打架,不过都是把多只果蝇扔一块儿打群架,不容易看出个所以然。等到本世纪初,果蝇搏击俱乐部
在哈佛轰轰烈烈地开张,才遵循搏击规则,在圈起来的场地里捉对厮杀。比赛场地是一个铺了一层琼脂的培养皿,中间滴了
一滴苹果汁作为奖品。为了刺激雄选手,在苹果汁上还放一只无头雌蝇——无头苍蝇是不会跑的,但是能吸引雄蝇,雄蝇只
对雌蝇的下半身感兴趣。然后,放两只雄蝇让它们打起来,用录像机拍摄下整个比赛过程。
another. It took some trial and error to get the setup right, but the arena now consists of a small cup of agar enclosed by Plexiglas. A dab
of yeast paste—a delicacy for Drosophila—in the middle of the cup gives the flies something to fight over. For male flies, the researchers up
the ante by sticking a headless female in the center of the ring. (The males seem to find decapitated females just as attractive as intact
ones, and the headless ones can’t fly away.)
  在拍摄了2000多场比赛之后,研究人员有一些有趣的发现。雄蝇的战术还真不少。最温和的战法是俯身向对手冲去,
或者是朝对手竖起翅膀,做威慑状。这么做与对手没有肢体接触,属于不战而屈人之兵的高明战术。但高明的战术未必能奏效,
所以往往还要贴身肉搏:伸出一只脚去刺对手;用后肢站起来,向对手猛扑过去;或者双方都站起来,挥舞前肢击打对手。
最激烈的是双方扭打在一起,满地打滚。
After poring over more than 2000 video-taped interactions between male flies, Kravitz and colleagues identified nine distinct acts of
aggression in a 2002 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS).
These moves included “wing threats” in which one fly faces another and suddenly raises both wings, “fencing” in which one fly
pokes a leg at another fly, “lunges” in which one fly stands up on two hind legs and slams down on his opponent, and “boxing,” which
looks about like it does in humans, if you add two limbs and subtract the gloves.
  正所谓“先下手为强”,谁先发动进攻,谁的胜算就比较大,而且第一次攻击越猛烈,胜算就越大。如果第一次攻击采用
的是温和的战术,胜算是3比1。但是如果一开始就发动猛烈进攻,胜算就提高到16比1了。

Whichever fly started the fight was most likely to win, especially if his first move was a strong one, the researchers also found. For
example, an instigator that used a slow “approach” move, in which he lowered his body and walked toward his opponent, had
3-to-1 odds of ultimately making his opponent retreat. But flies that started with a more intense move, such as fencing or wing threat,
improved their odds to 16 to 1.
而且第一次比赛的结果还会对以后的比赛产生影响。如果第一次比赛的失败者休息30分钟以后重上战场,几乎不可能获胜,
不管对手是前一次的胜利者还是第一次遭遇。看来果蝇对自己的失败会有惨痛的记忆,影响了以后的发挥。

Recent work by Kravitz’s team sheds further light on how flies form and maintain hierarchical relationships. When flies that had lost
their first fight reentered the ring after a 30-minute time-out, they almost never won. First-time losers had a 0-5-5 (win-loss-draw)
record in rematches with their first opponent and a similarly feeble 0-6-6 record against naive opponents who’d never fought another
fly, Kravitz and colleagues reported in the 16 November 2006 PNAS. First-time losers lunged less and retreated more in their second
fights, and they rarely made the first move; they only managed wins against other losers.
The researchers also found that flies appear to remember not just the outcome of their first fight but also the opponent. In sec-
ond fights, familiar opponents had fewer aggressive encounters than did unfamiliar opponents. First-time losers tried out a few
more lunges early on in fights against unfamiliar winners than in fights with the fly they’d lost to previously.

  和女人一样,雌蝇之间也会打架。不过它们温和得多,从来不使用“拳击”、“扭打”这类激烈手段,倒是经常用撞头、
推挤这类雄蝇很少用的战术。和雄蝇不同的是,雌蝇的打架往往没有产生明显的胜利者。

Like males, female fruit flies don’t shy away from conflict. They may not be as easily provoked as males, but given a dab of delicious
yeast to fight over, a pair of females will do their worst. (“They might be interested in headless males,” Kravitz says. “We haven’t
looked.”) Although males and females employ some common moves, female fights never escalate to “boxing” and “tussling” (a
barroom-brawl mix of holding, punching, and rolling around on the ground) as do the most intense fights between males, Kravitz and
colleagues reported in PNAS in 2004. Instead, females frequently head butt and shove—tactics rarely used by males. Females
also showed no evidence of dominance hierarchies. Unlike fights between males, in which a clear victor typically emerges, fights among
females seesaw indefinitely.
雌、雄果蝇在争斗中的不同表现, 与一种叫fru的基因有关。让雄蝇带上fru基因的雌蝇版本,雄蝇打起架来就
很像“娘儿们”。反之,让雌蝇带上fru基因的雄蝇版本,它们将像雄蝇一样彪悍。

More recently, Kravitz’s team has begun to investigate the genetics behind these gender differences. The group’s initial experiments
have focused on a gene called fruitless(fru) that has long been studied for its role in determining sex-specific courtship behavior. The frugene is
spliced differently in males and females, creating distinct messenger RNA transcripts. The male transcript can be used to make protein, but
the female transcript apparently cannot. In 2005, Barry Dickson of the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology in Vienna, Austria, and
colleagues reported in Cell that female flies genetically altered to make the male version of fruperformed courtship behaviors usually seen
in males and courted other females (Science, 3 June 2005, p. 1392). Male flies given female frubarely courted at all. The frugene has a similar effect on fighting
styles, Kravitz, Dickson, and colleagues reported in the December 2006 issue of Nature Neuroscience. Males with the female version of fruwere more likely to fight females than to
court them. The altered males also fought like females, using head butts and shoves; they never boxed. In addition, males with female fru did not appear to form dominance relationships
with other males. Conversely, female flies with the male version of fru tended to fight like males. Overall, the findings suggest that fru establishes the neural circuitry for aggressive
behavior, just as it does for courtship behavior.
  用果蝇做研究材料的好处是很容易做遗传实验,可以在实验室里培育出战斗力超强的果蝇。每次比赛之后,让最顽强的
选手留下后代,在其后代中再继续挑选顽强的选手做种……这样持续培育几十代后,就得到了一支超级搏击队。拉起这么
一支队伍的目的,不是为了去参加果蝇奥运会,而是为了把它们和一般选手作比较,看哪些基因发生了变化。初步的研究发现,
至少有42个基因与果蝇的争斗行为有关,非常复杂。
To get at that question, he extracted these dauntless flies from the fight cage and mated them with random females from the same gen-
eration. Then he started the process all over. After 21 generations, he’d created a superaggressive line of flies that were quicker to fight
and fought longer and more intensely than a line of flies created by selecting random males from the fight cages. Next, Dierick used DNA
microarrays to look for changes in gene expression in the aggressive flies. In this strain, 42 genes had increased or decreased
their activity by 25% or more, Dierick and Greenspan reported in the September 2006 issue of Nature Genetics. These genes,
they noted, have diverse roles, including muscle contraction, energy metabolism,
and cuticle formation.
  很显然,我们没法拿人来做类似的遗传学实验。但是研究表明,人类的争斗行为也有一定的遗传基础。通过调查发现,
孪生子更容易表现出相似的好斗倾向,即使他们从小就被分开抚养。但是这类调查的结果并不是那么确定,也很难靠它来
发现有关的基因。通过动物实验,能帮助我们理解人类暴力行为的生物学基础,也许有一天,能让我们的社会变得更和平一些。


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