方舟子抄袭案例汇总(亦明)- 中国学术评价网
 
方舟子在2006年抄袭《不列颠眼科杂志》 (by idear) (6207 查看)
发布: 亦明
日期: January 13, 2011 06:52AM

  《啄木鸟为什么不头疼?》大段抄了《Cure for a headache》 (95 Views)
送交者 : idear


英文原文已经找到了。

《啄木鸟为什么不头疼?》大段抄了一篇文章《Cure for a headache》,
这样节省了我们很多时间。嘿嘿。
这个英文文章都标着版权声明呢。。。。

[www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
s/PMC1771249/
Br J Ophthalmol. 2002 August; 86(8):
843. PMCID: PMC1771249
Copyright © Copyright 2002 British
Journal of Ophthalmology
《Cure for a headache》
Ivan R SchwabUniversity of California,

Davis, Department of Ophthalmology,

4860 “Y” Street, Suite 2400, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA; Email: irschwab@ucdavis.edu

==================================
啄木鸟为什么不头疼?

在各项诺贝尔奖获得者陆续宣布的同时,有一个另类诺贝尔奖也在哈佛大学颁发,沾光吸引了众人的眼球。这个由《不可能研究年鉴》组织、自1991年起开始颁发的“Ig诺贝尔”(与ignoble谐音,意思是“不光彩”)奖,在国内常被称为搞笑诺贝尔奖。它起初的确含有搞笑的成分,颁给那些“不可能也不应该被重复”的成果,主要是在讽刺一些不可信的、甚至是伪科学的研究。但是随着名气越来越大,其宗旨也发生了变化,改而颁发给“先让你乐,然后让你思考”的有趣研究,由讽刺变成了幽默,获奖研究越来越正式,获奖者虽然没有奖金,也大都欣然赴会领奖。

  其实有的Ig诺贝尔获奖成果虽然有趣,却一点也不可笑,当然更非不可信,例如加州大学戴维斯分校的伊凡·斯瓦布(Ivan )和加州大学洛杉矶分校的菲利普·梅(Phillip May,已故)因为研究和解释啄木鸟为什么不会头疼而获得2006年的鸟类学奖,就是一个非常严肃、严谨的研究。它涉及了进化生物学一个重要的问题:生物是如何巧妙地适应了其生活环境的?

  啄木鸟是生物巧妙地适应了其环境的典型例子。达尔文在《物种起源》的引言中,便是以啄木鸟为例,说明只有自然选择才能解释生物的适应性:“譬如说,啄木鸟的脚、尾、喙和舌是如此令人赞叹地适应了从树皮之下捕捉虫子,将这样的构造也仅仅归于外部条件,则是十分荒谬的。”但是即便是达尔文,也没有想到啄木鸟的头部和眼睛构造同样是令人赞叹地适应了从树皮之下捕捉虫子。

  啄木鸟好比一个锤子不停地快速敲打坚硬的树木,不仅通过啄木觅食,而且靠它在树干中挖洞建巢,还要靠它相互通讯和示威。啄木是啄木鸟最主要的活动之一,它啄木的次数一天可达1万2千次,频率达到每秒20次,每次撞击的减速力达到重力的1200倍,这相当于以每小时25公里的速度撞墙。
Woodpeckers hammer their lives away for feeding, nest construction, and drumming.....
The drumming is species specific and may be used for communication or territorial display, but is not related to feeding. As a result of these activities, D pileatus may strike the hard woody surface of a tree at a rate of up to 20 times a second (not a misprint) and up to 12 000 times a day with staggering deceleration forces of as high as 1200 g with each impact. That is equivalent to striking a wall at 16 miles an hour—face first—each time.


如果我们人类像啄木鸟那么干的话,毫无疑问将会导致脑震荡、脑损伤、视网膜出血和视网膜脱落等一系列致命后果,啄木鸟又是如何避免的呢?

  象牙喙啄木鸟是北美最大的啄木鸟,自1930年代以来长期找不到它,被列入灭绝物种名单。2005年它又被见到了。与象牙喙啄木鸟很像但个头较小的北美黑啄木鸟。

  啄木鸟的大脑比较小,体积小的物体的表面积相对就比较大,施加在上面的压力就容易分散掉,因此它不像人的大脑那样容易得脑震荡。
Additionally, the woodpecker is protected, at least to some extent, by its size. Its brain is relatively small, resulting in a small ratio of brain weight to brain surface area. Any impact force would be spread out over a relatively large area making its brain somewhat more resistant to concussion than a human’s brain.

啄木鸟在啄木时,敲打方向十分地垂直,可避免因为晃动出现的扭力导致脑膜撕裂和脑震荡。
The neurological mechanisms must be superb since these birds strike in a perfect perpendicular stroke to eliminate the torsional shear force that would otherwise tear the meninges or cause concussions
( May et al, Arch Neurol1979;36:370–3).


  啄木鸟还进化出了一系列的保护大脑和眼球免受撞击的装置。它的头骨很厚实,但是骨头中有很多小空隙,有点像海绵,可以减弱震动。大脑表面有一层膜叫软脑膜,啄木鸟头部进化出了一系列特殊的构造防止震动的损伤。在它的外面还有一层膜叫蛛网膜,两层膜之间有一个腔隙叫蛛网膜下腔。人的蛛网膜下腔充满了脑脊液。但是啄木鸟的蛛网膜下腔很窄小,几乎没有脑脊液,这样就减弱了震波的液体传动。

To equip the bird for its ecological niche, evolution has provided the woodpecker with a thick bony skull with relatively spongy bone, especially at the occiput, and cartilage at the base of the mandible to partially cushion the incessant blows. Inside the skull, there is almost no cerebrospinal fluid in a very small subarachnoid space.

  啄木鸟的下颚底部有软骨,可以缓冲撞击。它的下颚是由一块强有力的肌肉与头骨联结在一起的,在撞击之前这块肌肉快速收缩,也起到了缓冲作用,让撞击力传到头骨的底部和后部,绕开了大脑。

The mandibles are attached to the skull by powerful muscles that contract a millisecond before strike, creating a tight, but cushioned structure at the moment of impact and distributing the force of the impact to the base and posterior aspects of the skull, thus bypassing the brain (May et al, Lancet1976;1:454–5).


  啄木鸟的眼睛结构也十分巧妙。高速摄像表明,在撞击之前的一瞬间,啄木鸟眼睛的瞬膜会快速闭上,既避免了撞击溅出的木屑伤害眼睛,又像一个安全带一样把眼睛裹住,免得眼睛蹦出来。
The same high speed photography that has documented its strike mechanism has revealed that in that millisecond before strike the thickened nictitans closes over the eye. This would protect the eye from flying debris and chips, but would also act as a “seat belt” to restrain the eyes from quite literally “popping out of its head.”

它的眼睛中的脉络膜用一种黏多糖填满空隙,能起到缓冲作用。在鸟类眼睑上有一个像梳子一样的梳膜,可能也能起到防震作用,因为它一旦充血,就能暂时提高眼内压力,保护晶状体和视网膜。
Woodpeckers enjoy a cushioned choroid with an as yet unknown mucopolysaccharide filling the interstices. The pecten probably also has a role in maintaining an effective cushion as the pecten can fill with blood to briefly elevate intraocular pressure thus maintaining firm pressure on the lens and retina to prevent damage.


  啄木鸟长着结构很特别的长舌头。

  最奇妙的是啄木鸟的舌头。它的舌头极长,从上颚后部生出,穿过右鼻孔,分叉成两条,然后绕到头骨的上部和后部,经过颈部的两侧、下颚,在口腔中又合成一条舌头。这样的舌头就像一条橡皮筋,能够射出喙外达10厘米。显然,这条长舌头的主要用途是为了把虫子从洞中钩出来,但是在每次啄木之前舌头收缩的话,就能吸收撞击力,也是一个很好的缓冲装置。   

The woodpecker has other unique adaptations that deserve recognition and may contribute to the protection from intracranial injuries. The tongue is most unusual as it originates on the dorsum of the maxilla, passes through the right nostril, between the eyes, divides into two, arches over the superior portion of the skull and around the occiput passing on either side of the neck, coming forward through the lower mandible, and uniting into a single tongue in the oropharyngeal cavity. The muscles encase the bony hyoid throughout this muscular course into the oropharynx and are additionally secured in the floor of the mouth creating an apparatus that allows for extraordinary protrusion of the tongue of up to 4 inches beyond the tip of the bill! These musculotendinous bands create a curious sling-like structure that probably functions as an isometric shock absorber if contracted before each strike. This sling would also serve to distribute the potential shearing forces (
May et al, Lancet1976;1:454–5). Such length is useful for penetrating insect nests beneath the bark of trees.

达尔文在《物种起源》中一再感叹啄木鸟身体构造的巧妙,写道:“啄木鸟攀登树木并从树皮的裂缝里捉捕昆虫,我们能够举出比这种适应性更加动人的例子吗?” 但是啄木鸟身体构造比达尔文设想的甚至还要精巧得多。生物学家研究这样的身体构造,一点也不搞笑,也不是纯粹出于学术上的好奇,并非没有实用价值。啄木鸟的身体构造乃是在自然选择作用下长期进化的结果,是大自然用数百万年的时间做的一个实验,研究它是如何巧妙地避免撞击带来的身体损伤,对于改进防止人类大脑损伤的保护设备,不无启发。  

转自:[www.2250s.com]



被编辑1次。最后被亦明编辑于01/13/2011 06:53AM。

选项: 回复引用


主题 发布者 已发表
方舟子在2006年抄袭《不列颠眼科杂志》 (by idear) (6207 查看) 亦明 01/13/2011 06:52AM


对不起,只有注册用户才能发帖。
2250s.com does not represent or guarantee the truthfulness, accuracy, or reliability of any of communications posted by users.

This forum powered by Phorum.