方舟子抄袭案例汇总(亦明)- 中国学术评价网
 
方舟子在2006年抄袭法国科普网站 (3871 查看)
发布: 亦明
日期: December 09, 2010 03:33PM

2006年7月19日,《中国青年报》发表了方舟子的科普文章,《达尔文的兰花》。(见 XYS20060719,[www.xys.org] /darwin3.txt)。不计标点符号,全文不到1400字,其中大约三分之二抄袭自下面这两篇文章:

Michel Raynal. MADAGASCAR "PREDICTED MOTH": AN ILL-KNOWN SUCCES OF CRYPTOZOOLOGY. [cryptozoo.pagesperso-orange.fr] (该网页注明: last update: 14 July 1999)

Sessions, L. A., Johnson, S. D. THE FLOWER AND THE FLY. Natural History, March 2005. [www.explorebiology.com].

下面是比较:

方舟子1:1862年,在《物种起源》发表3年后,达尔文出版了一部研究兰花的著作。达尔文研究兰花的目的,是要证明自然选择是生物进化的动力,为《物种起源》提供补充材料。

Michel Raynal:“In 1862, the famous naturalist Charles Darwin published a book on the evolutionary biology of orchids, On the Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects.”
 
方舟子2:但是有一种原产马达加斯加的彗星兰却让达尔文感到了为难。这种彗星兰拉丁文学名的意思是“一尺半”,其名称源自它那“令人惊骇”(达尔文语)的花的形状:它有又长又细的花距,从花的开口到底部是一条长达11.5英寸(29.2厘米)的细管,只有底部1.5英寸(3.8厘米)处才有花蜜。 “什么样的昆虫能够吸到它的花蜜?”达尔文大胆地预测:“在马达加斯加必定生活着一种蛾,它们的喙能够伸到10到11英寸长!”

Michel Raynal: “One of these orchids from Madagascar, Angraecum sesquipedale, had nectaries eleven and a half inches (28.6 cm) long, with only the lower inch and a half (3.8 cm) filled with nectar. From the structure of this orchid, Darwin ‘predicted’ the existence of an unknown moth: ‘It is, however, surprising that any insect should be able to reach the nectar: our English sphinxes have probosces as long as their bodies ; but in Madagascar there must be moths with probosces capable of extension to a length of between ten and eleven inches !’ (Darwin 1862).”

方舟子3:不过达尔文的盟友、曾经独立提出自然选择学说的华莱士则坚定地站在达尔文一边。他写道:“可以很安全地预测在马达加斯加存在这样的蛾;访问那个岛屿的博物学家应该抱着和天文学家寻找海王星一样的信心去寻找它,我斗胆预测他们将会同样成功!”

Michel Raynal:“Meanwhile, Alfred Russel Wallace, …… came to the same conclusion: ‘……That such a moth exists in Madagascar may be safely predicted ; and naturalists who visit that island should search for it with as much confidance as astronomers searched for the planet Neptune, and I venture to predict they will be equally successful !’ (Wallace 1867, 1871).”

方舟子4:1873年,著名博物学家赫曼•缪勒在《自然》杂志上报告说他的哥哥曾经在巴西抓到过喙长达25厘米的天蛾,说明达尔文的预测并不那么荒唐。

Michel Raynal:“Herman Müller, in the July 17 issue of the same year, mentioned that his brother had caught in Brazil a sphinx ‘the proboscis of which has a length of about 0.25 metres’, demonstrating that Darwin's moth was not at all impossible (Müller 1873). ”

方舟子5:1903年,这种蛾终于在马达加斯加被找到了——一种长着25厘米长的喙、像小鸟一般大小(展翅13-15厘米)的大型天蛾。它被命名为“预测”。这时候距离达尔文做出预测已过了41年。

Michel Raynal:“This ‘cryptolepidoptere’ was actually found and described 41 years after Darwin's prediction: it belonged to that very species, but it was a new sub-species, which Rothschild and Jordan named Xanthopan morgani praedicta in 1903, i.e. ‘predicted’, which is fully justified (Rothschild and Jordan 1903). This insect has a wing span of 13 to 15 cm, of the color of a dead leaf and its proboscis is actually 25 cm (ten inches) long. ”

方舟子6:达尔文之所以敢于做出这个令人惊骇的预测,是因为他深知自然选择的威力。兰花的花距应该略长于授粉者的喙,这样授粉者在尽量伸长喙去吸花距底部的花蜜时,身体挤压到花冠,花粉才会沾到授粉者的身上。因此,在这样的情形下,兰花的花距越长,就会迫使授粉者沾到更多的花粉,就越容易留下更多的后代。反过来,授粉者的喙越长,就越容易吸到花蜜,有更充足的营养,也就越容易留下更多的后代。如此这般长期互相竞赛的结果,使兰花的花距变得越来越长,天蛾的喙也变得越来越长。

Sessions & Johnson:“Critical to Darwin's prediction was his suspicion that pollination could take place only if the depth of a plant's flowers matched or exceeded the length of a pollinator's tongue. Only then would the body of the pollinator be pressed firmly enough against the reproductive parts of the flower to transfer pollen effectively as the pollinator fed. Thus, as ever deeper flowers evolved through enhanced reproductive success, moths with ever longer proboscises would also, preferentially, live long enough to reproduce, because they would most readily reach the available supplies of nourishing nectar. Longer proboscises would lead yet again to selection for deeper flower tubes.”

方舟子7:在南非,生活着十几种“长鼻苍蝇”,它们也长着细长的喙,长度可以与“预测”天蛾相媲美,而身体却小得多。相应的,在那里有许多种有着细长的花距的花由它们传粉。

Sessions & Johnson:“The meganosed fly (Moegistorhynchus longirostris) of southern Africa, ……. has a bizarre appearance that reveals an underlying truth. Its proboscis, ……protrudes as much as four inches from its head—five times the length of its bee-size body. ……The outlandish proboscis gives the meganosed fly access to nectar pools in long, deep flowers that are simply out of reach to insects with shorter mouthparts.

方舟子8:在马达加斯加还有一种与“一尺半”彗星兰同属的兰花,它的花距还要长,长达40厘米。1991年,美国昆虫学家基因•克里茨基(Gene Kritsky)学达尔文做出预测:在马达加斯加还存在着一种未知的大型蛾类,其喙长达38厘米!

Michel Raynal:“History now seems to be repeating itself : American entomologist Gene Kritsky, of the Mount Saint Joseph on the Ohio College in Cincinnati, recently made an hypothesis similar to Darwin's prediction. Another Madagascar orchid, Angraecum longicalcar, has a rostrellum still deeper than that of A. sesquipedale : about 16 inches (40 cm). Consequently, Gene Kritsky predicted in the American Entomologist of Winter 1991 the existence of another unknown large moth in Madagascar, with a proboscis 15 inches (38 cm) long ! (Kritsky 1991, Angier 1992).”

方舟子9:也许用不着再等41年,又会有一种奇特的天蛾令人惊骇。

Michel Raynal:Let us hope that we will not have to wait 41 years before this new predicted moth will be found...

应该承认,方舟子在抄袭之时,也作了一点儿贡献,那就是计算出了11.5英寸等于29.2厘米,而不是Michel Raynal所说的28.6厘米。哇!


方剽窃抄袭最传神的是最后一句的那个惊叹号\"!\"
虹桥科教论坛 [www.rainbowplan.org]


送交者: iamback 于 2010-12-01 09:28:19

回答: 方舟子抄袭剽窃100例之25——《达尔文的兰花》 由 亦明 于 2010-12-01 04:11:33

方舟子:其喙长达38厘米!

Michel Raynal:with a proboscis 15 inches (38 cm) long !  



被编辑1次。最后被亦明编辑于01/13/2011 06:25AM。

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