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方舟子在2010年抄袭英文维基百科“海马”词条 (6287 查看)
发布: 亦明
日期: December 09, 2010 03:46PM

  方舟子2010年在《中国青年报》上的第一篇文章抄袭维基百科

2010年1月6日,《中国青年报》发表了方舟子的《雄海马为什么怀孕?》一文,全文大约两千字。(见:[zqb.cyol.com] /content/2010-01/06/content_3016236.htm)。据查,这篇文章几乎完全根据当时的英文维基百科“海马”条写成,其中有三分之一是直接翻译。且看下面的比较(注:维基百科的文字来自2009年12月29日版“海马”词条:[en.wikipedia.org]; oldid=334731194):

方舟子1:如果把海马和明显是鱼的尖海龙放在一起,还是很容易看出海马的身体就是以海龙为模板做了改造。化石和分子生物学的证据也都表明海马是从某种海龙进化来的。
维基1:Anatomical evidence, supported by molecular, physical, and genetic evidence, demonstrates that seahorses are highly modified pipefish.

方舟子2:在生育季节开始后,海马成双成对地翩翩起舞,连跳几天求偶舞蹈。
维基2:When two parties discover a mutual interest at the beginning of breeding season, they court for several days, even while others try to interfere. During this time they have been known to change color, swim side by side holding tails or grip the same strand of sea grass with their tails and wheel around in unison in what is known as their “pre-dawn dance”.

方舟子3:然后雌海马的肚皮紧贴雄海马的肚皮,把像阴茎的产卵器插进雄海马肚皮上的育儿袋中,排出卵后就离开了。
维基3:When the female’s eggs reach maturity, she and her mate let go of any anchors and snout-to-snout, …… The female inserts her ovipositor into the male’s brood pouch, where she deposits her eggs, …….

方舟子4:雄海马不仅要给育儿袋中的卵授精,还要给它们提供氧气和养料。卵和育儿袋的壁结合在一起,后者就像胎盘,有丰富的血管供应氧气和养料。
维基4:The eggs are then fertilized in the father’s pouch ……. As seahorses are not mammals his pouch instead provides oxygen as well as a controlled environment incubator.

方舟子5:在卵孵化后,小海马还要继续在爸爸的育儿袋中待上一段时间,靠育儿袋分泌的养料为生。在雄海马怀孕期间,雌海马除了每天早晨来探望一次,共舞6分钟之外,就不干别的了。
维基5:The eggs then hatch in the pouch ……. Throughout the male’s incubation, his mate visits him daily for “morning greetings”. The female seahorse swims over for about 6 minutes of interaction reminiscent of courtship.

方舟子6:大约一个月后,雄海马收缩育儿袋,把小海马排到海中。一旦小海马生产出来,雄海马就不再管它们了,而是马上准备再次怀孕。
维基6:…… with pregnancy lasting from two to four weeks, depending on the species. When the fry are ready to be born, the male undergoes muscular contractions to expel them from his pouch. He typically gives birth at night and is ready for the next batch of eggs by morning when his mate returns. Like almost all other fish species, seahorses do not care for their young once they are born.

方舟子7:整个怀孕过程和哺乳动物的很相似,甚至它们的化学基础也有相似之处:都受催乳素的控制。
维基7:The eggs are then fertilized in the father’s pouch which is coursed with prolactin, the same hormone responsible for milk production in pregnant mammals.

方舟子8:但是制造卵非常耗费能量。对海马来说,这是负担不起的开支。……这已经让卵的重量占了其体重的三分之一了。
维基8:When the female’s eggs are ready, she must lay them in a few hours or else she has to eject them onto the sea floor which is a huge cost to her physically, as her eggs amount to about a third of her body weight.

方舟子9:这种奇妙动物的生存现在面临着新的挑战,正在成为濒危物种。威胁它们生存的,除了栖息地的丧失和环境污染,主要的因素是被大量地捕杀晒干了做中药。……每年世界各地有大约2千万只海马被捕杀,卖到中国和其他华人居住地区用来做“补肾壮阳”的中药。
维基9:Seahorse populations are thought to have been endangered in recent years by overfishing and habitat destruction. The seahorse is used in traditional Chinese herbology, and as many as 20 million seahorses may be caught each year and sold for this purpose.

那么,方全才是不是只抄袭维基百科呢?当然不是。因为这篇维基百科文章仅罗列了47个海马的种,但是,方舟子却说:“现存52种海马”。那么,方舟子的这个数字是怎么来的呢?如果用seahorse + 52 + species搜索网络,你就会找到一篇2000年3月11日发表在Science News上的文章:Pregnant and Still Macho – seahorses。在这篇文章中,作者写道:“It lists 52 species in one genus, Hippocampus, within the oddball syngnathid fish family.”(见:[findarticles.com] /ai_61291647/)。实际上,海马的种类到底有多少,一直众说纷纭。“主流”的说法是,只有三十多种。(见:http: //www.aquarium.org/seahorses/faq_species.htm、http: //seahorses.netfirms.com/species.html)。

实际上,维基百科上的文章,在很大程度上就是根据Science News上这篇文章改编而来。只不过是,维基上的文章,是货真价实的改编,真可谓无一处无出处,不仅引文给出原始文献,即使是用自己的话来复述,也要给出来源。与这些无名的科普作家相比,方科普作家真算得上是“最聪明”的了:他把人家的东西信手偷来,省心省力,骗钱骗名,真是一举四得。如果一个这么聪明的骗子都不能“感动中国”,还有谁能呢?

阅读次数:745

所有跟贴:

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+ 何必你,方剽窃感动的是CCAV,又不是中国。让它感动去 (无内容) iamback (0字节) 11/24 07:52 (131519)
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o 方瘪三尽干些省心省力、骗钱骗名的勾当。 遨游时空 (19字节) 11/24 07:41 (131517)
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方舟子在2010年抄袭英文维基百科“海马”词条 (6287 查看) 亦明 12/09/2010 03:46PM


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